Egypt Exploration Fund [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1909-1910

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Geaeco-Eoman Egypt.


(the basis of which was fînancial) of the fourth century; (3) tlie économie
and political development of Egypt from the fourth century onwards, tliis
consisting mainly of the évolution of large landed proprietors, who
succeeded in detaching themselves from the local administration and
acquiring autonomy, tbereby disorganising the government, and paviug
the way for the easy conquest of the country by the Arab invaders.
Gelzer, who- is the pupil of Wilcken, and who makes warm acknow-
ledgment of lus master's encouragement and assistance, has marslialled
the évidence with great care and thoroughness, and handles bis material
witb judgment; and the resuit is highly creditable to both master and

Another of "Wilcken's pupils, Dr. G. Plauinann, has produced under liis
master's advice a monograph on the history of Pfcolemais.''1 The subject
lends itself well to separate treatment, since Ptolemais is in efifect the only
example of a Greek city founded in Egypt by the Greek dynasty ; Naucratis
is too early, Antinoopolis too late, and Alexandria too spécial and peeuliar
in its circumstances. The materials for its history are not plentiful, since
the modem town covers the ancient, and renders excavation impossible.
Dr. Plaumann has brought together the évidence of inscriptions, papyri
(notably Brit. Mus. Pap. 604, a.d. 47), and literary références, and discusses
it intelligently ; and though the results are not very considérable, his
book will be useful for référence.

A short note by Kornemann32 refers to the use of the phrase
to \îfurov as meaniug the border province on the south of Egypt,
Kornemann arguing that the Latin limes may similarly inean not merely
the boundary fortification of the Eoman empire, but the border district

The examination of the légal aspects of Graeco-Egyptian texts continues
apace. Mitteis has published a treatise of 60 pages 33 dealiug with the
technical formalities attending the various methods of laying a complaint
before a magistrate, in the period of Eoman impérial administration. Sucli
complaints might be addressed to a centurion (i.e. the police), or the strategus,
and the latter might be invoked either to deal with the matter himself (as
a sort of arbitrator), or to refer it to the circuit-court of the Prefect : or
they might take the fonn of a direct pétition to the Prefect (or his deputy,
the SiKaLo$ôt7}<;), either in a mémorial (vTro/j,vT]fia) or, less regularly, in a
letter (eVio-ToX??). The appeals to the circuit-court or to the Prefect in
person led the way to a regular process at law. In the early Byzantine
period the circuit-court disappears, and complaints are addressed to the
provincial governors as well as to the Prefect ; the strategi and epistrategi

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