Egypt Exploration Fund [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1910-1911

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Pkogeess of Egyptology.

Sayce in 1889. Wilcken publishes an inscription17 at Braunsberg of
136-5 b.c., in which mention is made of a gymnasium at Ombi (near
Elephantine). Preisigke contributes a study18 of Tebtunis Pap. 5,
which he explains as extracts from a proclamation of amnesty and grace
issued by Euergetes II in 118 b.c., when (it is to be presumed) the long
civil war which began in 131 had taken a decided turn in his favour.
P. Blumenthal, a pupil of Wilcken's, discusses 19 the nature of the worship
of the emperors in the Eoman period, which differs very markedly from
the highly organised worship of the kings in the Ptolemaic period. This
article includes a list of the days known as i]/xepai Se/3aajal. Gelzer,
whose excellent treatise on the administration of Byzantine Egypt was
mentioned in last year's Eeport, supplements this by notes20 on the
texts included in the first volume of J. Maspero's catalogue of the
Byzantine papyri in the Cairo Museum. Shorter contributions21 include
several of Prof. Lumbroso's characteristic letters; a note by Smyly,
confirming on astronomical grounds the date (343 b.c.) arrived at by
Meyer for the dream of Nectanebus in Leyden Pap. V; a note by Bell
on a protocol attached to an eighth century document, but perhaps itself
of the Byzantine period, since it shows no trace of Arabic, but only the
mysterious upright characters which some would explain as Latin; a short
article by A. Stein, identifying Claudius Julianus, who appears about
a.d. 202-4 with the title of Biao-ijfioTaTos, as a catJwlicu.f, or finance officer,
whose name appears in an inscription as praefectus annonae ; and a note
by E. Fitzler on an inscription of a.d. 11 (published by Cagnat), relating
to the office of chief inspector of mines. The last-named has also published
(in the series of " Leipziger historische Abhandlungen," which already
contains Gelzer's study of Byzantine administration and Plaumann's
monograph on Ptolemais) a treatise22 on quarries and mines in Ptolemaic
and Eoman Egypt.

The most important work based upon the papyri which has appeared
during the past year is M. Jouguet's volume23 on Municipal Life in
Eoman Egypt. Its contents are even wider than its title, for the first
seventy pages deal with the Ptolemaic period. These, however (and it may
be remembered that for this period we have already the history of Bouche-
Leclercq), form only an introduction to a full discussion of the whole
subject in the Eoman age, extending over some 400 pages, and treating it
from every point of view. M. Jouguet writes, as always, with admirable
lucidity and knowledge, and discusses with courtesy and the fullest con-
sideration the views of other scholars on the various topics which come up
for discussion. The subject still abounds with points of obscurity, and
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