Rudiments of ancient architecture, containing an historical account of the five orders, with their proportions, and examples of each from antiques also, extracts from Vitruvius, Pliny, &c. relative to the buildings of the ancients — London, 1810 (4. Aufl.)

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for receiving the works above. It would
be aukward reasoning to continue the com-
parison of a column to the human figure,
and so compare the capital to the head of
a man.

The Abacus was a tile or stone, placed
with intent to throw off the water, and pre-
vent its sinking into the column; orrather
it interposed a broader resting plane be-
tween the head of the column and the parts
above it-

The Astragals and Fillets were bandages
round the column.

These conjectures, and conjectures they
are at the best, suppose the ideas for all
the parts to arise from structures of wood;
but if we consider the material of which
buildings afterwards were made, and of
which only we have any remains, it is but
fair to say these several additions to the
bottom and top of columns were absolutely
necessary in structures of stone, to widen
or spread the point of bearing when the
diameter of the column was decreased ;
to every example where the columns are
no more than four or five diameters high,
the base is wanting; and the very ancient
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