Ars: časopis Ústavu Dejín Umenia Slovenskej Akadémie Vied — 1982

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https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/ars1982/0198
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PciieccaiicHan apxHTCKTypa b CaoBaKna

BbiBiiiasi BeHrpHH, ceBepHyio nacTb KOTopoä neKor;ia cocTaB-
juuia CjioBaKHM, 6buia nepBOft crpaHOň k ceBepy ot Ajitn,
B KOTOpOÜ BO BTOpOH nOJlOBHHC I 5 BCK3 — b nepHOfl npaB;ienna
MaTea KopBHHa (1458—1490 rr.) — nosiBnjicsi cthjib peneccan-
ca. B CnoBaKHH oh Haqaji pa3BHBarbc» rjiaBHBiM oSpaaoM
b ropoflax, CHana/ia b b upc nepexo^Horo cthjui; H3o6pa3HTejib-
Hbte HCKyccTBa )/iecb npe/jBOCXnmaJin apxHTCKTypy. B ricpuyio
OHepeflb MeHsæTca ooinec noHHMaHne npocTpancTBa, jimiib
no3flHee nepeHUMaiOTC« peneccaHCHbie <j)opxtbi peTaJieji.
nepBOH hoctpohkoh, na KOTopoü nepermeTaioTCJi tothhcckhc
H peneccaHCHbie <(>opMbi, Gaina paryma B EapaeüOBe (1505—
1508 rr.). UlnpoKoe pa3BHTne peneccaHCHOfi apxureKTypbi na-
cTynaer jihhjb nocne nonoBHHbi 16 Bexa h cBiirano oho rnaBHbiM
o6pa3OM c yKperuieHHeM CnosaKHH BcneflTBHe hoctohhhoh
BOeHHOit yrpo3bl CO CTOpOHbl TypOK. 143 3TMX COOpyjKCHHH
ocooo BBifleJiseTcs peiieccaiiciiaa nepecTpoÈKa KpenocTH Mep-
BeHbi KaMCHb (nocne 1535 r.) h no npoeKTy Otthehsi Eananrapa
nocTpoeHHbifl yKpenjieHHbifl ropofl Hobb 3aMKH (1573—1581
rr.), KOTopbtiî Hapany c torocnaBCKHM KapnosaneM npencTaB-
jiHeT coGoh nepiiyio peajimaijmo HpeanbHoro peneccancHoro
ropopa Booôme. SneMeiiTbi peneccanca Haxoflar npHMeneHHe
na nepecTpoüKax MHoroHiicjieHHbix cpe/meBeKOBbix Kpenocreň
H B MeipaHCKOM apXHTCKType C THOHMHEIMH cjjpOHTOHHblMH
aTTHKaMH. nepHO/i pa3BHTHs peneccancHOH apXHTCKTypbl c jio-
CHHCCKHM H læTKHM njWHOM, HCHblMH H nOHBTHblMH npOHOp-
ijhbmh npoflOJixaerca iipHMcpno no rpern 17 BeKa; iiotom
HacTynaeT OTCTynneHHe BHyrpeHHeň hothkh b nojibsy cnox-
hocth h yKpauiaTejiBCTBa, ajteMcitrbi peneccanca nepenne-
raioTCs c paHHHM ôapoKKo. B koiiuc 17 Bexa pa3Bnrne BbinuBaer-
CSI b GapoKKo.
CaMoft 3HaHHTeribHOH oGnacTbio pacnpccrpaneHna penec-
caHca b cTpaHe Gbina BOCTOMnaa CnoBaKM, peneccanc KOTopoü
Gbui TecHo cBîisaH c KXkhoh riojibmeň, b ocoGchhocth c xpyn-
HbiM peaeccaHCHEiM nenrpoM KpaKOBOM, no hmcct cbh3b
TaiOKe c oÔJiacTbio Cpe.timcMHOio Mop«. HeMeuKHir peneccaHC
CnoBaKHH cyipecTBeHHO ne Kocuyncs.
Eopona, oKai bie cpemtCBCKOBi.iMH yKpenneHHsiMH h cbh33h-
Hbie CTapoň njiaHHpoBKOii, mchîhot cboh oôjimk. B oco6chhocth
na nnomaaax BbipacraioT KaxieHHbie flOMa c peHeccancHbiMM
noprajiaMM, apKepaMH, aTTHKaMH h crpa<jx{>HTHbiM o(|)opM.ne-
HHeM. .ÜBopbi npnoßperarciT apKa^HBie jio/pkhh, HHTepbepbi
peuiaiOTCii panHOHaribHee m peneccaHCHo o<|)opMjieHbi. Meuian-

cKHe AOMa cbohm njianoM npOflOJiîKaioT TpaaHUHH rpexnpo-
cTpancTBeHHOro KpecTMHCKOro AOMa; jihiub b HCKJiroHHTenb-
HBix cnyHaax BosHHKatoT coe/iHHCHHeM ynacTKOB KpynHBie
MemaHcKHe flowa (Eaiicxa EbicTpnna, JleBOHa h ap.). CrposiTca
HOBbie paTywH: b EaHCKOfl EbicTpnue (1564—1565 rr.) KaK
nacTb ropoflCKoro aKponona, b JleBoae (1550—1552 rr.) —
nepecTpoHKa 1599—1615 rr.) nocpeflH nnomaan; hjih xe k hhm
npHCTpaHBaioTca HOBBie peneccaHCHBie TpaKTbi (EpaTHcnaBa
1573—1581 rr.). B ucpKOBHoiî apxHTeKType nocTeneHHO bhca-
paeTca KOHuennna 3ana, KyjibMHHHpyæmas B eßaHrejiHHecKHX
nepeBBHHbix T. na3. apTHKyjiapHbix KOCTenax c njianoM rpe-
MecKoro KpecTa. CnoBanKoli ocoGchhoctbio hbjuhotch orneribHO
CTOJHlIHe KOJIOKOJ1BHH, yKpameHHBie aTTHKOBbIMH (jjpOHTOHaMH.
Hoßau cTpoHTenbHaa MBicjib nposiBHJiacB rnaBHbiM oôpasoM
b apxHTeKType ycaaeG, KOTopbie ctpohjihcb na paBHHne. B hhx
nepeHHMaioTCH eme ajie.MeiiTbi <[)opiH(t)HKaiiHOHH<>ň apxHTexry-
pbi. HeKOTopbie ycanbÔBi, MMeiomne KyGnaecKyro (jjopNty,
HcxoxwT H3 roTKHecKHx KypHH (SeTJiaHOBpe 1564—1568 rr.),
npyrne, c HeTBipextjwiHreJibHbiM nnaHOM okojïo neHTpanBHoro
flBopa, — hx roTHHecKHX KpenocTeň (nanp. nepBOHanaJibHO
BOflüHaii ycaflßßa b Ebithc—1571—1575 rr.— aBTop KnJiHaH
CbipoT ne MenHOJiano, k kotopoh b 1601 rony 6bin npncrpoeH
T. na3. ,lI,Bopeu GpaKocoHeTaHHB, 6oraro yKpanienHbiH crpa<{>-
(|)HTO).
CnoBatiKaa peneccancHaii apxHTexrypa coneiaer b ceôe
OÔlHHe 3aKOHOMepHOCTH peHeCCaHCHOií apXHTCKTypbl C HeKOTO-
pblMH CneUH<t>HHeCKHMH <|>0pMaMH. Ee HHCTbie, KyÔHHeCKHC
<|)opMbi Macro BennajiM (JipoHTOHHBie arTHKH, hsbccthbic ceroa-
HH yxe TOJIBKO CO CTapHHHBlX BH-flOB TOpOaOB. ElponOpUHH
nocrpoeK nacTO cooTseTCTByioT cootholuchhio npocTBix nenbix
HHcen. XapaKTepHCTHHccKHe nepTBi cjioBariKoro peneccaHca
BBITCKaiOT ne H3 CTpOHTeJlbHblX 3JieM6HTOB HBH H3 OpHaMeHTH-
KH, a H3 npHHUHnOB nnaHHpOBKH H KOMnO3HUHM.
Peneccanc y Hac ncxonn;i H3 oTeaecTBeHHOH, yxe iipenmeci-
Byiom.HM pa3BHTHeM nero noaroTOBneHHOH cpeflbi. Huane
Henb3H ce6e oGbbchhtb ero xapaKTepHCTHHecKHe sjieMeHTbi
H B3aHMHyiO <j)OpMeHHylO pOflCTBeHHOCTB nocTpoeK. B OCOÔeH-
HOCTH CBOHMH CnelUKjjHHeCKHMH HCpTaMH, HeOpeHHTeTIbHBlMH
MepKaMH T. na3. K/iaccHHccKoii apxHTeKTypBi, o3Ha*iaeT BKJiaa
b necTpoe, perHOHajibHO pH<j>(|)epeHnnpoBaHHoe pasBHTne
MHpOBOH apXHTCKTypbl.
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