Instytut Historii Sztuki <Posen> [Editor]
Artium Quaestiones — 3.1986

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dzieł. Byłaby to jednak raczej prezentacja ewolucji twórczości każdego z
artystów w okresie należenia do grupy, a nie „zbiorowa biografia grupy
artystycznej”. Ta ostatnia wyłonić by się mogła z połączenia tych dwóch
perspektyw badawczych, gdyby udało się znaleźć sposób adekwatnego
przekładu języka socjologa życia artystycznego na język historyka form


The subject of the present text is ”Swit” (Dawn) — a group of artists active
in the years 1921 -1927 in Poznań. The article is an attempt at reconstructing
the history and the functional model of an artistic group viewed as an insti-
tution of artistic life. The perspective of the dynamics of the artistic life of
the interwar period (1918 - 1939) viewed as the dynamics of creation, coexisten-
ce and disintegration of artistic groups is deeply rooted and widespread in the
literature on the subject. However, the acceptance of this perspective is not
accompanied by theoretical considerations of an artistic group. Neither synthe-
tic wiorks»», nor monographs »of artistic groups altlteimipt to formulate -such a theory.
Itis starting point »slho'uld be studies of specific historical dialta. With the general
ascertainment of the structure of artistic culture of the years 1918 - 1939 as prefer-
ring the institution of a group, a question should toe asked about the grounds of
creation and the model of each group. There would toe many answers to this ques-
tion, as there are many elements of lartilsfiic life which are connected with emerging
and funcitiioning of each jpanticular group. Revealing and describing these relation-
ship would become in fulture the (basis of the typology of artistic groups of the
”Swit” came »into existence between the years 1920 -1921. The grup members
were: Adam Ballenstedt, Bronisław Bartel, Erwin Elster, Wiktor Gosieniecki, Sta-
nisław Jagmin, Mieczysław Lubelski, Fryderyk Pautsch, Władysław Roguski, Stefan
Sonnewend and Jan Jerzy Wroniecki. Undoubtelly the leading role in the integra-
tion of ”Swit” members was that of the State School of Decorative Arts and Crafts,
which became crystalizing centre of the group. The School professors were: Pautsch
(Headmaster), Jagmin, GoisfiemiecKi, Roguski, Wrioniecki, Elster and Bartel. Besides,
most of the ”Swit” members belonged to the community of artists-newcomers who
had settled in Poznań after world war I and were not assimilated by the local
artistic circles, integrated already before the war by the Society of Frie»nds of Fine
Arts and the Artists’ Association. The antagonism between the locals and newcom-
mers, common to all social strata and spheres of life, manifested itself on the arti-
stic ground toy the ‘Characteristic isolation of ib»oth Circles. Moreover, the fulture
group members thought themselves t»o be the professional elite »of 'the Poznan a»rtd-
sic community marked by high artistic level. The creation of ”Swit" was an attempt
alt breaking the institutional monopoly lof the local artistic community, as well ais
-an expression of the selfconscience of the group members as the only representa-
tives of ’’True” art in Poznan. On the »other band, the »group was an institution-
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