Instytut Historii Sztuki <Posen> [Editor]
Artium Quaestiones — 16.2005

Page: 33
DOI issue: DOI article: DOI Page: Citation link: 
https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/artium_quaestiones2005/0035
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PIERWOWZÓR MASYWU WIEŻOWEGO FARY CHEŁMIŃSKIEJ

33

wacji dzwonnic. Dziś wprost trudno uwierzyć, że tak oczywista analogia
umknęła historykom sztuki na przeszło sto lat. Powodem był niewątpli-
wie fakt, że spostrzeżenia konserwatorów pruskich nigdy nie doczekały
się utrwalenia w literaturze naukowej. Nie znał, albo zwyczajnie o nich
nie wspomniał Johannes Heise, wydający pierwszy katalog zabytków
pruskich z tomem poświęconym Chełmnu już od 1887 roku. Przeoczyła
to podobieństwo także Teresa Mroczko oraz inni badacze polscy piszący
o Chełmnie. Nie dostrzegł go ostatnio także Olaf Asendorf, choć przed-
miotem analizy uczynił właśnie wieże kościołów i zamków pruskich.
A zatem - przedstawione w niniejszym artykule „odkrycie” należy trak-
tować jedynie jako przypomnienie prawd oczywistych jeszcze przed stu
dwudziestu laty.

THE MODEL OF THE WESTWORK OF THE PARISH CHURCH IN CHEŁMNO
Summary
The parish cłrurch of Our Lady in Chełmno is the main church of the city which
the Teutonic Knights chose to become the Capital of the futurę state of the Order.
The construction of this imposing edifice started at the end of the 13th century, from
the east to the west. The chancel was completed around 1300, to be followed by a
three-aisle main corpus with the lower part of the westwork. Finally, before 1333,
the northern tower and part of the Southern one were fmished. The two-tower west-
work of Chełmno gave way in Prussia to a series of imitations in Chełmża, Brodnica,
Królewiec, and Nowy Staw, nevertheless, the origin of the monumental towers of the
church of Our Lady has never been persuasively explained. Attempts to explain their
form in reference to the cathedrał facades in Strasburg and Regensburg (T. Mroczko)
or the facades of prestigious city churches in Muehlhausen and Marburg, construc-
ted under the patronage of the Teutonic Knights (O. Asendorf), have not brought
satisfactory results. What has been overlooked is the immediate model of the Chełm-
no church facade, i.e., the łatę Romanesąue westwork of the collegiate church of St.
Victor in Xanten of the early 13th century. Similarity concerns the ąuarternary com-
position of the fronts of the Chełmno towers, modełed after the fronts of the side
towers in Xanten. The interior of the St. Victor collegiate church westwork is a łatę
version of the Western choir hall (Westchorhalle) developed in Rheinland, and it
considerably differs from the interior of the Chełmno towered masses. This, in turn,
resembles the late Romanesąue two-tower westworks of the Rheinland churches in
Limbourg and Andernach. The emulation on the Vistula of the forms taken over
directly from the Xanten church, which was a prestigious collegiate church in the
diocese of Cologne, might have had both artistic (huge towers could be easily seen
from the rivers on which both cities were built), and ideological reasons. The Teuto-
nic Knights imitated the towers of a church whose patron was a martyr, a warrior
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