Papers of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens — 5.1886-1890

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THE BATTLEFIELD OF PLATAIA.

273

meant to carry out the arrangement in good faith. As dawn ap-
proached, Pausanias left liis obstinate captain, who soon followed him,
and retired ten stades to a place called Argiopios on the banks of the
Moloi's, where there was a temple of Demeter. On the retreat the
Lakedaimonians kept to the hills, but the Athenians turned down
into the plain. When the Persians saw the Greek position deserted,
they set out to pursue, as they supposed, a fleeing enemy. They ad-
vanced on the Lakedaimonians, for the Athenians in the plain were
hidden from them by the hills. The sacrifices were unfavorable for
the Lakedaimonians, and they were being wounded without striking
a blow, until Pausanias looked away toward the Heraion and prayed
that they might not be disappointed in their hopes. Here by the
temple of Demeter the battle was fought and the Persians were routed.
The Boiotians kept the Athenians employed till they too were routed
and fled to Thebes. The Persians had fled to their wooden fort.
When the Greeks at the Heraion learned that the Persians were flee-
ing, they set out in two detachments. One passed among the hills at
the base of the mountain on the way which led up straight toward
the shrine of Demeter ; the other moved through the plain till it fell
in with the Theban cavalry, which charged it and drove it into the
mountain. The Persian fort was soon stormed and great slaughter
followed.

This outline shows that Herodotos gives three positions of the
Greek troops, which we shall endeavor to determine. But first let
us fix the more permanent features, such as the Island, the spring
Gargaphia, the temple of Demeter, the Heraion, and the shrine of
Androkrates.

The ruins of Plataia3 lie on a plateau at the foot of Kithairon about
two miles and a half from the Asopos, which flows at this point in a
comparatively straight line toward the east. This is enough to form
the basis of our investigation. To begin with the Island. Herodotos
(ix. 51) says : " This Island is before the city of the
position Plataians, distant ten stades from the Asopos and the

op the island. ' r

spring Gargaphia, at which they were then encamped.
And under the following circumstances there would be an island in a
continent. The river branches and flows down from Kithairon into the

3 See the map above. For other maps, see Leake, Travels in Northern Greere,
vol. ii; Steis, Herodotus, vol. v; Gkote, History of Greece, ell. 42; Stanhope,
Topography of the Battle ofPlataea; Hoc-age, Travels of Anuchursis, pi. 0.
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