THE CHORUS IN THE LATER GREEK DRAMA.
eral character of the later Greek tragedy, hut also the art and
manner of the presentation of both the old and the new tragedies
in the contemporary Greek theatre, just as is the case with
Grysar, Jahn, and Ribbeck have established the fact that Ro-
man tragedy never lacked a chorus.19 The activity of this chorus
was not confined to the interludes, though not many years ago
scholars maintained the contrary on the strength of Donatus20
as confidently as they now maintain it, on the strength of Aris-
totle, for the later Greek tragedy. In Horace, Ep., 2, 3, 215 :
tibicen traxitque uagus per pulpitum uestem, is found an indication ot
the customary freedom of movement of the chorus following the
musician. In the scanty fragments Ribbeck and Jahn have found
sufficient evidence that the choreutae regularly came into close
contact with the actors. They engage in conversation with them
in the Medea and Thjestes of Ennius, the Antiopa, Chryscs, and
Niptra of Pacuvius, and the Philocteta of Accius. Bacchic choruses
seem to have been especially popular, occurring in the Lycurgus
of Naevius, the Periboea, Antiopa, and Pentheus of Pacuvius, and
the Bacehae of Accius. Such plays as the Eumenides and the
Alcumeo of Ennius probably suggested to Cicero the image which
he found so effective: " quern ad modum in fabulis saepenwn-
ero uidetis, eos, qui aliquid irnpie scelerateque commiserunt, agitari et
perterri Furiarum taedis ardentibus. (Hose. Am. 24,67; cf. in Pis. 20).
Further still, in the Philocteta, a chorus of sailors accompanies
TJlixes and Diomedes, and a similar chorus appears in the Iphi-
genia of Ennius. In the Antiopa (?) of Pacuvius the choreutae
threaten an actor (Ribbeck, T. R. E. jr. inc. iv), and in his Niptra
(Jr. ix) they carry the wounded Elixes in upon the stage. In the
Antigona of Accius (Jr. iv), the chorus of watchmen seize the heroine
as she sprinkles dust on her brother's corpse. A second chorus
19 See Grysar, Canticum u. Chor der rom. Trag. in Sitzuvgsber. d. wien. Akad.
15 (1835), 305 fl'.; Jahn, in Hermes 2 (1867), 225 if., and Ribbeck:, Rom. Trag.
and Gesch. d. rom. Dichtung, and the convenient summary in Sch wabe's last revision
of Teuffel's Gesch. der rom. Lit., I, 20.
20 Arg. to Andria: est igiiur attcntc animaduertendum ubi et quando scaena
uacua sit ab omnibus personis, ut in ea chorus uel tibicen audiri possit; quod quom
uideretnus, ibi actum esse finitum debemus agnoscere. Tibicen seems to refer to
comedy, chorus to tragedy. Donatus is not in error. The function of the chorus
during the progress of the piece does not concern him.