Cockerell, Charles Robert
The temples of Jupiter Panhellenius at Aegina and of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae near Phigaleia in Arcadia: to which is add a memoir of the systems of proportion employed in the original design of these structures — London, 1860

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DETAILS OF THE TEMPLE. 33

The same allusion to the arts of iEgina may be found in other Odes of Pindar, more especially in the fourth
and the eighth Olympic; and the tP6itos rfc ipyaa-ias 6 MycmiSs of Pausanias not only designates a school of art
acknowledged and celebrated throughout Greece, but implies the writer's recognition of three early schools as
conspicuous, the Egyptian, the early Attic, and that of JEgina; to these Strabo adds a fourth, the Etruscan or
Tyrrhenian. It cannot be reasonably doubted that the early Attic and JEginetan schools resembled each
other in their general character. Athenian writers ascribe the origin of their own to Daedalus, who, they
say, lived about 1400 B.C., but the name and date are equally mythical, denoting simply the name of Smith in
England or Faber in France.

The school of iEgina was renowned as far back as the sixth and seventh centuries B.C., and was on the
decline before that of Athens, under Phidias, came into note. It is more than probable that as Athens owed
much of her subsequent fame to the forcible dispersion of the inhabitants of ^Egina, so the latter island owed, if
not its origin, at least some portion of its celebrity to its intercourse with the Ionian colonies before and during
their revolt against Persia. On the whole, it would seem that the iEginetan school was at its zenith from about
the middle of the sixth century down to the commencement of the Peloponnesian war. Pausanias enumerates
thirteen sculptors* of this school whose merit entitled them to be recorded; and seeing that, Athens only
excepted, no other city of Greece produced an equal number of eminent artists, we can scarcely doubt the
assertion that iEgina became the manufactory from which idols, penates, commemorative statues, and other

* Their names are as follows :—

1. Smilis, son of Eucledos of vEgina, is stated by Pausanias to have been contemporary with Daedalus of Attica. 1400 B.C., though not equal
to Daedalus; to have made the statue of the celebrated Temple of Samos, and to have travelled to Elis, where he also executed the statues of
the Seasons of ivory and gold, placed in the Temple of Juno at Olympia (Pausanias, vii. 4 ; v. 17) ; but Mr. Heyne and M. Q. de Quincy
have justly observed on the anachronisms which these assertions of Pausanias imply.

2. Callon of iEgina, who made the tripod, attached to which was a statue of Proserpine, at Amyclas, at the end of the Messenian
war, about 600 B.C. (Pausanias, hi. 18); also a wooden statue of Minerva Sthenias at Trcezene (i. 22). Pausanias (vii. 18) speaks of
another Callon of Mgina, contemporary with Canachus, 525 B. c. ; not agreeing, however, with the mention of the same name made by
Pliny, as an artist flourishing in the 87 Olympiad, 428 B.C. Callon was probably not an uncommon name. Pausanias speaks of Callon
the Elean, who made the bronze statue of the Children of the Messenians at Olympia (v. 25) ; and of another Callon, a pugilist (vi. 12).

3. Glaucias of iEgina (Pausanias, vi. 10), made the statue of the celebrated Glaucus at Olympia, about 500 B.C. Glaucias, was the
author of Gelon in a Car at Olympia (vi. 9). Glaucias of iEgina made the statue of Theogenes of Thasos in the aids of Olympia (vi.
12). The statue of Philon, on which was written :

irarpis pip KtpKvpa, (f>iku>v b ovop., dpi be F\avKov
vlos, Kal vikS) ttv£ bv' oXvpnriabas.

4. Sinon of Jilgina, made a statue of a Horse and Groom at Olympia, in bronze, dedicated by Phormis of Maenales, 490 B. c.

5. Aristonus of Mgina,, who made a statue of Jupiter holding an Eagle in his hand, and having a wreath of spring flowers on his
head, dedicated by the people of Metapontum. " Neither the master of Aristonus, nor the epoch in which he flourished," says Pausanias,
" are known " (v. 22).

6. Anaxagoras of iEgina, 479 B.C., made a statue of Jupiter at Olympia, dedicated by the people of Platasa, after the defeat of
Mardonius; the names of all the places whose citizens were present at that battle, amounting to twenty-six, were inscribed on the pedestal.
The JEginetans ranked fifth in this honourable list. Pausanias adds, that those who have described the battle have said nothing of this
Anaxagoras.

7. Onatas of iEgina, made a statue of Ceres at Phygaleia, and a colossal statue of Apollo at Pergamos, and the statue dedicated by
Hieron at Olympia. Also a statue of Hercules, ten cubits high (or fifteen feet one inch), for the Thasians ; he flourished about 460 B.C.
(Pausanias, viii. 42.) Onatas made a magnificent group of ten statues of the Heroes before Troy who cast lots to accept the challenge
of Hector ; dedicated by the Acheans to Jupiter at Olympia. In the shield of Idomeneus, Onatas triumphantly inscribes, " These works,
with many others, the fruit of the labour of Onatas, son of Micon, of JSgina :"

TToWa p.ev aAAa ootpbs Trotr/para, Kal rob' 'Ovarii
"Epyov, iv Alyivp rbv reVe naiba Mwca>!'.

Onatas executed for the Pheneates a statue of Mercury with a helmet, a tunic, and a mantle, carrying a ram under his arm, at Olympia.
"This Onatas the iEginetan," says Pausanias (v. 25), "was an excellent sculptor, and has left many works, and I think him inferior to
none of those of the school which derived from Daedalus established at Athens;" a comparison which apparently included the names of
Phidias and Alcamenes. " Onatas made a car of bronze, in which is a man, and on either side a horse mounted by boys ; these were
monuments of Victory in the Olympic Games, obtained by Hieron, whose son Dinomenes, tyrant of Syracuse, dedicated them."
(Pausanias, vi. 12). Onatas was contemporary with Hejesias at Athens (Pausanias, viii. 42), and Agelados of Argos.

8. Theopropus of iEgina, 565 B.C., made a statue of a Bull in bronze, an offering of the Corcyreans at Delphi. (Pausanias, x. 9.)

9. Synoon, sculptor of Mgma, is mentioned with honour by Pausanias (vi. 9), in conjunction with—10. Plotichus, his son, who, with—
11. Serambus, sculptor of iEgina, also made the statues of Epicradius and Agiadus. 12. Philotimus of ^Egina, made the statue of
Xenombrotus of Cos, victor in the horse race. 13. About 480 B. c. Ptolichus son of Synoon, who was the disciple of Aristocles of Sicyon,
brother of Canachus (525 B.C.), to whom he was hardly inferior in reputation. (Pausanias, vi. 9.) Ptolichus made the statue of
Theognetus of J^gina, who obtained the prize for wrestling amongst the youths at Olympia. " I could not discover," says Pausanias,
"why he holds in his hand the apple of a cultivated pine ; perhaps the ^Eginetans have some particular tradition on this point;" possibly
it might signify the necessity of abstemious habits to acquire the health and strength necessary for such combats, the pine-apple being
always considered the emblem of frugality.
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