attempt the task of settling so vexed a question, but shall leave
the historians cited to speak for themselves. For completeness
all the passages are quoted below. Spartian, perhaps, re-editing
earlier material heads the list of authors, followed by Dio Cassius
and Herodian. Next in order come Aurelius Victor, Eutropius,
and Eusebius. Last of all are Paulus Orosius and Cassiodorus.
First there is one of two famous paragraphs from Spartian, one of the
Scriptores Historiae Augustae (see note above, p. 4).
Spartian de Hadriano, cap. 11. Mon. Hadrian [about a.d. 120] went to
Hist. Brit., I., Ixv. Britain, where he set many things to
[Hadrianus] Brittaniam petiit in qua rights, and first drew a wall for 80
multa correxit murumque per oetoginta miles to divide the barbarians from the
millia passuum primus duxit qui bar- Romans,
baros Romanosque divideret.
This passage lias never been claimed with any show of probability as referring to
the northern barrier, but has always been admitted to refer to the barrier of the
southern isthmus, although different constructions have been put upon its meaning
in that connection.
Before quoting the second and highly debatable passage from Spartian relative
to events in the campaign of Severus in the years 208-211 a.d., it is proper to
interject, for the preservation of chronological sequence, twro or three passages
bearing on the history of the wall or walls in the interval subsequent to Hadrian's
expedition in 120 a.d. , and that of Lollius Urbicus in or immediately after 140 a.d.
Dio Cassius flourished about 230 a.d., and in the Epitome (lxxii. 8), made from
his history by Xiphilin, there is an account of an expedition made about or soon
after 183 a.d. by Ulpius Marcellus, who " grievously worsted the barbarians in
Britain." This retaliatory expedition had been occasioned by an inroad of the
northern tribes across the frontier barrier—possibly the Vallum of Antonine.
Dio, lib. lxxii., cap. 8. Mon. Hist. For some of the tribes in that island
Brit., I., lix. [Britain] having passed over the wall
rwv yap ev ry v-qffio edvQ>v vTreppefi-qKoTuv which divided them from the Roman
to reixos to Siopi^ov avrovs re Kal ra twv fortresses [or probably armies], and,
'l'w,a(uu>c araTbireSa Kal iroXka. aaKOvp besides killing a certain commander
yovvrwv, OTpa.Ti)ybv re nva /xcra tSiv with his soldiers, having committed
o-TpaTioiTwv oOs ci'xe KaTaKQ^iavTuv, (pofirj- much other devastation, Commodus
(Ids 6 Ko/j.fj.o8os, MdpKeWov OiiXinov ew' became alarmed and [about or soon
avrovs eTre^ev. after 183 a.d.] sent Ulpius Marcellus
The same author gives a very fully detailed account of the British expedition
of Severus, which began in 208 a.d. and ended with his death at York in 211.
It is noteworthy that this long and full description of the Caledonian campaign
makes no mention of the erection of any wall by Severus. There is, however,
distinct mention of a wall, possibly that of Antoninus, already existing.
Dio, lib. Ixxvi., cap. 12. Mon. Among the Britons the two greatest
Hist. Brit., I., lx. tribes are the Caledonians and the
Avo Se yiv-r) tQv TSperravwv fieyicrrd Maeatae, and even the names of the
eiVi, KaXrjdovioL Kal Mcudrcu' Kal es aira others, to put it roughly, have merged
Kal to. twv &X\wv wpoapynaTa (cis eiireiv) in these. The Maeatae dwell close to
o-vyKex<*>priKtv oIkovul Si oi fih Maiarat the boundary wall which divides the
irpos airrif t$ Stareixt'oyicm 8 ttjv vt\<jov island into two parts; the Caledonians
dixq repLvei' Ka\i]doi>iot. de, fier'eKelvovs. beyond them.
Herodian also, who flourished about 238 a.d., gives a well-detailed account of
the great campaign of Severus, but, like Dio Cassius, he makes no mention of