Glasgow Archaeological Society   [Hrsg.]
The Antonine Wall report: being an account of excavations, etc., made under the direction of the Glasgow Archæological Society during 1890 - 93 — Glasgow, 1899

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vallum, beginning with the vallum of sod.1 Vegetius, in his

1 Hygirms, Liber de Mmritionibus Hyginus, sec. 48.—Now let us
Castrorum (ed. Domaszewski, 1887). briefly deal with the fortifications of
Sec. 48.—"Nunc munitionem castro- camps and other matters concerning
rum et reliqua quae pluribus auctores which authors have written much,
scripserunt, breviter perferamus. Mu- The fortification of summer camps is
nitio aestivalium observatur generibus described as of five classes—fosse,
quinque : fossa, vallo, cervolis, armis, vallum, cervoli, arms, and agger,

Sec, 49.—"Fossa loco securiori causa Sec. 49.—The fosse is made even in
disciplinae cujus species est fastigata the safer places for the sake of disci-
vel punica. Fastigata dicitur quae a pline. It is either of the fastigate or
summa latitudine lateribus devexis in the Punic species. It is called fastigate
angustiam ad solum conjuncta pervenit. when it is widest at the top and its
Punica dicitur quae latere exteriori ad sides, slanting to a point, come together
perpendiculum dirigitur. Oontrarium at the bottom. It is called Punic when
devexum fit quoniodo in fastigata. its outer side is made perpendicular,
Quibua latitudo dari debeat ad mini- and the opposite side is made slanting
mum pedum quinque altum pedes as in the fastigate species. To these
tres." . . . fosses a width should be given of at

least 5 feet, and a depth of 3 feet. . . .
Sec. 50.—"Vallum loco suspectiori Sec. 50.—The vallum in the more
extrui debet cespite aut lapide, saxo exposed parts should be built of sod
sive caemento. Sufficit latum pedes or stone, whether rock or rubble. A
viii. altum. pedes vi. et lorica parva breadth of 8 feet is sufficient, and a
fit." . . . height of 6 feet, and there is made

also a small breastwork.
Sec. 51.—"Cervoli trunci ramosi. Sec. 51.—Cervoli are the trunks of
Ad hos decurritur si soli natura nimia trees with the branches attached,
teneritate cespes frangitur neque lapide Recourse is had to them if, from the
mobili nisi copiosum vallum extrui nature of the soil, the sod breaks
potest nec fossa fieri ut non ripae because of its excessive softness, and
deeidant." a vallum owing to the stone being

unsteady cannot be built which is not
too large (i.e., wants too large a base
to stand up), and a fosse cannot be
made without its banks tumbling in.
Sec. 52.—" Quotiens cervoli desunt Sec. 52.—When cervoli are not to
et est locus suspectior armorum ordini- be had, and the place is at all danger-
bus iiii. castra muniunt ut per singulos ous, they guard the camp with four
ordines vigiliae crebrius ponantur ; et rows of arms so that the watchmen
equites alterna vice castra circuire may be more frequently set along each
debent." . . . row; and the ' horsemen must ride

round the camp by turns. . . .
Sec. 53.—" Aggeribus autem ita fit Sec. 53.—If the place happens to
vallum, si locus petrosus aut arenosus be stony or sandy, a vallum may be
fuerit, quod sine dubio aggere facto constructed by the use of earthen
munitionem castris praebet." mounds, because the construction of an

agger ensures fortification for the camp.

As regards the types of fosse employed in military work, it is worth while to
supplement Hyginus by a citation from Caesar relative to his famous siege of

De Bello Gallico, vii., cap. 72. He drew a fosse 20 feet broad, with

Fossam pedum xx. latam directis perpendicular sides, so that its bottom
lateribus duxit : ut ejus solum tantum- was as wide as the lips (or scarp and
dem pateret quantum summa labra counterscarp) were apart at the top.
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