extraordinary; for the vallum is to this day visible enough in
places which he had passed, for instance on Ferguston Moor.
Between Bonnybridge and Roughcastle, the south rampart (as
he calls the vallum) " is to be seen1 in its greatest perfection,
measuring 17 feet in breadth and 6 in perpendicular height."
It was " distant from the fosse near 20 feet." A circumstance
which astonished him was his finding2 what he " very little
expected, namely, the foundation of a freestone wall at the
bottom of the south rampart, about 14 feet broad." This
he ultimately decided was the base of the vallum. " It
may be wondered," he says,3 " that the foundation of a
freestone wall appears to have gone along its whole track on
the south agger ; but this I take to be nothing else but laid
as a foundation for making the rampart of stone and earth
above it the more firm." That it was made of promiscuous
stuff from the trench, he never doubted, as he begins his
" observations " on the wall thus 4—" The first remark that occurs
relating to this wall is the certainty of its being originally
Gespititious; namely, made of the common stone and earth
which was dug out of the ditch." From the term " south
rampart" or " south agger" quoted above, it will be seen that
Gordon conceived that there was a rampart on the north side as
well as the south side of the ditch. Of this so-called rampart
(which in our pages is referred to as the outer mound) Gordon
l'rofile from Gordon's " Itinerarium Septentrionale."
has not much to say in his text, but his " profile or section of the
whole "5 brings it out as a tiny heap perched on the edge of the
great ditch and rather less in bulk than the military way. He
remarked it particularly at one point," where he says it " was a
iltin. Sept., 58.
2 Itin. Sept., 58.
3 Itin. Sept., 63.
4Itin. Sept., 63.
6 Itin. Sept., plate 48.
6 Itin. Sept., 59.