kerb of the vallum. As regards the soils in the vallum and the
expansion here, it is observable that they contain small stones in
rather unusual number.
Several points are quite clear regarding the expansion and its
relation to the vallum. 1. It is evident that the vallum and the
expansion have been made of the same material and by the same
method. 2. From the manifest batter of the whitish strip or
southern face of the vallum, the expansion, as it were, overhangs
the vallum,1 that is to say, at the height of 5 feet, for example, the
expansion leaning as it does against the whitish strip necessarily
leans over the whole southern face of the whitish strip, and over-
laps the base of the vallum by the extent of the batter, viz., by
feet. 3. From this it follows (1) that the vallum could not
possibly have been made after the expansion which overhangs it;
(2) that the vallum could scarcely have been built at precisely
the same time, as in that case no such line of demarcation as
actually exists, in kerb and whitish strip, would be looked for
between vallum and expansion; and (3) that according to the
whole indications the vallum was first erected, and that, probably
a very short time subsequently, the expansion was added to it—
built up against the vallum.
Croy.—Section No. 12.
[Vallum only sectioned.]
This cutting, 522 feet west of section Croy No. 11, and
147 feet east of a stone dyke along the top of an arable field, is
on the western declivity of the third ridge of Croy. The kerbs
and bottoming are only 2 feet below- the surface. The breadth,
measuring as usual from the south face of the south kerb to the
north face of the north kerb, is 14 feet. The kerbs are of hard
freestone and spotted porphyry. The bottoming is of rough
stones, laid in the usual fashion. Layering is present, but
indistinct, not more than one black line being clearly traceable.
It seems to be protracted faintly on the north beyond the kerb.
At this point, the relative levels of the fosse and the vallum
1 This fact is of great interest and importance, and will be made more
intelligible by the block opposite.