GLASGOW ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY.
and illustrative purpose which Mr. Russell had in view. Since
then it has been gradually collapsing.
In the course of making this experiment, however, the
kerbs of the base were laid bare on both north and south
sides for about 4 yards; and at the same time the ditch
opposite was cleared out; so that it is desirable, at this stage,
to record the facts thus disclosed, with only slight allusion to
any inferences deducible from Mr. Russell's ingenious effort at
The characteristics of the vallum are the same here as
elsewhere in Bonnyside.. The clearing of the stone base from
the outside made what might be called a longitudinal section
running alone the outside of the vallum. The base' of stone,
15 feet 4 inches wide, has squared kerbs of sandstone. The
soil of the vallum, as exposed by the preparatory work for
the restoration, consisted of whitish and ochreish red sand,
with numerous dark layers traceable in continuous lines along
the sides of the vallum, just as in the former cross sections.
These appeared to be quite the same in character as those in
the cross sections. There was only one unusual feature about
them. In some there was found a small quantity of charred
or blackened wood.
The berm here is exceptionally wide, being about 25 feet
6 inches. The fosse was at this point in the very best preser-
vation. It scarcely needed the spade to reveal its original shape,
which appeared visible enough even in its grass-grown state.
Here there was no overgrowth to close up the bottom, and no
falling in of the banks to obscure the original character of the
slopes. The clearing out of a portion of the ditch for a distance
of 18 feet along its course here, however, has made the conclusions
as to its primitive shape still more reliable. The ditch measures
37 feet 4 inches across the top of scarp and counterscarp, and the
sides slope to a fine point in the bottom. The counterscarp here,
as we have found elsewhere, is at several points faced with stone.
The flattish top of the outer mound extends from the edge of the
counterscarp for fully 35 feet, and then dips rapidly to the level
of the adjoining ground.