glasgow archaeological society.
erected the stone kerbs and the culvert-mouths were in line
with the exterior face, and visible from without.
The culverts have been the subject of notice by earlier writers.
Examples are reported to have been found on Ferguston Moor.
In course of the present investigations, inquiries made on the
farm of Thorn, near New Kilpatrick, revealed the fact of the
former existence of one of these culverts there. It was uncovered
in the course of farming operations, and from the description
appended below1 it appears to have resembled in all particulars
those found during the present explorations. It was destroyed.
Another between JBonnymuir and Falkirk, at the east end of the
house called Tayavalla (which stands on the very line of the
vallum), has more fortunately been preserved, and is still intact.
It also tallies with the others.2
3. The Original Shape and Size of the Vallum.
We must at once say that the data obtained from the sections
are insufficient to warrant any very positive conclusions as to
the shape or size of the vallum. We have only one certain
factor, viz., the stone base averaging- 14 feet in breadth. This,
we cannot doubt, indicates the original breadth of the wall in its
lower courses. It does not tell the width at the top, nor does it
tell the height, although it helps to furnish a means of roughly
'Memo, of 22nd June, 1891, made by Mr. Neilson :—
" Saw, along with Mr. William Johnstone, Mr. George Allison, farmer, Thorn,
Bearsden, who went over the line of the wall with us. He has lived 50 years
there, and has taken many cart-loads of stones, some of them squared, from the
line of the vallum.
"There is a field he calls the 'Mosspark.' It has a deep, large hollow which he
says is moss; and the wall appears to have made an angle so as to pass to the
north of it. The line of the ditch is just on the edge of that field, and further
west passes out of it into the ' North-plantin' park.' There, at a place where no
through watercourse could ever have run (as ground slopes down southward to
moss above referred to, and northward slopes downward also), he found a culvert
about four years ago at a point 45 yards east of thorn march hedge which crosses
the ditch. It was about 5 yards long (less than 'a rig and a-half'), and had a
course for water about 7 inches wide made of stones, some freestone, some not, and
with a course of flattish stones laid on the top. Soil better in the hollow of the
ditch than on north agger beyond."
' 2 The top or lid of this consists of about 13 large stones. The width of the base
here is 15 feet.