Progress of Egyptology.
some Homer fragments of the third century b.c., which, like those
previously published by Mahaffy and Nicole, contain additional lines not
existing in the vulgate text, but in one case (which adds to their interest)
quoted by Plutarch. This phenomenon, which might fairly be disregarded
when found only in one or two instances, assumes a different importance
when it is found to be nearly universal in the earliest papyri; though it
is to be remembered that all these probably come from the same district,
and that the additional lines have so far not been of a striking'
In addition, Messrs. Grenfell and Hunt publish some scraps of unknown
authors of the third century b.c., very small but palaeographically interest-
ing ; some small portions of Demosthenes' De Falsa Legatione and Contra
Phormionem; a fragment subsequently identified by Gomperz as from
Xenophon's Memorabilia (i. 3. 15—4. 3); and a Christian document of
some interest, being a Festal Letter from a bishop to his flock, very
handsomely written in a hand apparently of the sixth century.
The non-hterary documents in the same volume are mainly of the
Roman period, and are of miscellaneous character, including an assort-
ment of toll receipts for the transit of goods between the villages of the
Faiyum, certificates of labour done on the embankments (five days in
the year was the quota required), and letters, receipts, &c, of the usual
kind. Palaeographically, these papyri fill some gaps in our knowledge,
by providing dated specimens round about the years 30.0. and 400. . The
Ptolemaic documents are very perfect in many cases, and provide excel-
lent palaeographical specimens, but add little to what was contained in
Mr. Grenfelfs earlier volume, being contracts of sale or loans of the same
kind, and with the same formulae. It should be added that the acquisi-
tion of several of them is due to the munificence of Mr. E. R. Bevan,
who has presented them to the British Museum. There are also some
Byzantine documents and a few_Latin fragments. The indices to the
volume are very full and elaborate, and there are some useful facsimiles.
Three parts of the Berlin publication 9 have appeared during the past
year, containing eighty-five documents, which brings up the total number
of papyri published by Messrs. Wilcken, Krebs, and Viereck to 696.
The documents contained in the new parts are mostly of the same
character as those which have preceded them, and do not call for detailed
notice; but among them is a Latin papyrus of some length (edited by
Gradenwitz) containing imperial edicts relating to appeals to the
emperor and the privileges of veterans (No. 628). The date is not stated.
There is also (No. 646) a communication from the epistrategus of the