Progress of Egyptology.
local gods of Elephantine do not appear at all. The prevalence of
the names of Apis and Ptah show that they belonged to wine-mer-
chants, etc., who were settled in the " Tynan camp" at Memphis.
Phoenizische und Aramaische Krugaufschriften aus Elephantine (Abh.
Berl. Ac. 1912).
On the triad of Yaho at Elephantine. Grimme, O.L.Z. xv. 11; cf. van
Gelderen, ib. 337, who traces a Samaritan element to the garrisons ot
Eevillout writes on the Egypto-Aramaean monetary system, Rev.
Egyptologique, xiii. 158; and PoGNON on the chronology, Journ. As.
Sayce adds an ostracon from his own collection referring to the
Passover. P.S.B.A. xxxiii. 183, cf. Daiches, ib. 17, Sayce, ib. 212.
Bissing recognises Libyans in the battle-scene at Deshashah. Bee. de.
Trav. xxxiv. 18.
To Meinhof we owe a study of the Hamitic languages, Die Sprachen
der Hamiten, illustrated by an investigation of seven representations of
the group in various parts of Africa. The Hamitic group, in which
Ancient Egyptian is included, is allied on the one hand to the Semitic, on
the other to the Bantu, but is qirite distinct from the "Sudan" language-
group to which Nubian is attached. While the Hamitic group possesses
gender, number, and inflexion, the Sudan group must be viewed as
properly "isolating," the most representative examples having clear
traces of tone-distinction like the Chinese. Meinhof's view is thus
widely different from that of Keinisch: the latter, in his Persdnliche
Vorwbrt and Sprachliche Stcllung, connects the " Nilotic" group, which
is in part the " Sudan" group of Westermann and Meinhof, with the
Hamitic and Semitic.
The rich collections for the grammar and vocabulary of Nubian made
by the Swedish philologist Alonquist in 1877-8, Nubische Studien im
Sudan, have been carefully edited by Zettersteen. They are published
without essential changes, but digested into a very convenient form by
one who has made himself a master of the language by studies among
the people as well as at home. The results are very valuable, adding a
large number of words and forms to those already available in the text-
books. There is an interesting review of it by Eeinisch, Z.D.M.G. lxvi.
323. See also below, p. 39.
Eor Meroitic studies, sec above, p. 28.