Progress of Egyptology.
Wiedemann searches for an instance in which the Egyptians connect
Isis with the moon as was done by the Greeks, Sphinx, xv. 135; remarks
on the ant-fish, id. ib. xvi. 14; the animal of Mendes usually a ram, some-
times, in agreement with classical statements, a goat, id. ib. 15: a rare
formula found on the ushabti of Amenhotp III. and the Governor of
Thebes, Mentemhat. id. ib. 33.
On the meaning of the name shuabti, ushabti. Mahler, P.S.B.A.
xxxiv. 146, 179.
Spiegelberg writes on the ha as a protecting spirit, perhaps of snake
form; a ushabti called a " servant," though representing the deceased;
Ammon as god of the air in a demotic papyrus; explains a Greek epithet
of the Egyptian Kronos, " youngest of the gods," as probably resting on a
misinterpretation. A.Z. xlix. 126 et seqq.
W. Max Muller considers that the royal names of the Pharaohs claim
that they are incarnations of the divinity. O.L.Z. xv. 308.
Daressy collects lists of twelve hippopotamus goddesses whom he
shows to preside over the months, and of the four or five Meskhent-
•roddesses. Bee. de Trav. xxxiv. 189.
Eoeder has contributed an elaborate article on Sobk to Bosciiee's
Naville has published two fine Books of the Dead at Cairo, written for
members of the family of the high priests of Dyn. XXI. Papyrus
funeraAres de la XXI' Dynastie.
Grapow identifies the rare chapter I B of the Book of the Dead in the
papyrus of Iouya, and discusses it and ch. 48 (with an interesting note on
ch. 125, A.Z. xlix. 42; from the Pyramid Texts and the Book of the
Dead he collects passages in which the spirits and the gods are threatened
if they injure or neglect to help the dead man. ib. 48.
Erman explains and translates almost the whole of the remarkable but
fragmentary inscription first elaborately treated by Breasted in 1901,
under the title of " The Philosophy of a Memphite Priest." He finds it to
be a not very accurate copy made in late times from a confessedly worm-
eaten original, and composed of several texts of different ages and differing
orthography; and interprets the work not as philosophical, but as an
attempt to attribute to the Memphite god Ptah the highest position as
creator and ruler of the universe, of whom all other gods were but forms
or creations. Sitzb. Berlin Ac. 1911, 916.
Blackman publishes further text's from coffins of the Middle Kingdom
), and a note on variants of h/pd-r in