Armengaud, Jacques Eugène; Leblanc, César Nicolas   [Hrsg.]; Armengaud, Jacques Eugène   [Hrsg.]; Armengaud, Charles   [Hrsg.]
The engineer and machinist's drawing-book: a complete course of instruction for the practical engineer: comprising linear drawing - projections - eccentric curves - the various forms of gearing - reciprocating machinery - sketching and drawing from the machine - projection of shadows - tinting and colouring - and perspective. Illustrated by numerous engravings on wood and steel. Including select details, and complete machines. Forming a progressive series of lessons in drawing, and examples of approved construction — Glasgow, 1855

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paper, and to lay down the projections of the intersecting
cylinders upon a larger scale, as at Fig. 5. Here, the arc
h v2t, representing that marked h t in Fig. 1, but on a
scale of twice that to which that figure is drawn, is the ver-
tical projection of part of a cylinder situated horizontally,
while the semicircle h't s, corresponding with that marked
h t s in Fig. 2, is the base of a vertical cylinder. This
being premised, the construction of the curve of intersec-
tion of these two solids will manifestly resolve itself into
an application of the method already laid down, and the
lines in the drawing ‘will be found sufficiently explicit with-
out the aid of farther explanations. When the curve has
been drawn upon Fig. 5, its dimensions must be reduced
by one-half in order to reproduce it in its proper propor-
tions upon Fig. 3 ; this may be accomplished by setting
off half the distance t u (Fig. 5) from t to u (Fig. 3); then
through the point u drawing a horizontal line, and from u
setting off, on each side of the centre line, half the distance
uv (Fig. 5); which will give two points in the reduced
curve, &c.

Figs. 6, 7, and 8 are the projections of a hanging bracket
or gallows, as it is usually termed; such pieces are used
for the support of light horizontal shafts situated near to
the roof of a building or flat, and are usually bolted, as in
the present instance, to the wooden beams which support
the roof or flooring.

In executing the drawing of such an object as that now
before us, we must first prolong the vertical side B F of
the beam indefinitely, and from the point F set off the
distance (18 in.) from the end or side of the beam to
the axis C of the shaft. Then through the point thus
obtained draw a horizontal line, and lay off upon it the
distance (6| inches) from the centre to the plane of the
side B F ; the position of the centre C is thus defini -
tively fixed. After having described from this point the
various circles which represent the size of the bearing
and outlines of the brasses, as also that of the cover, fixed
to the bracket by a single bolt E, we proceed to find upon
the horizontal line C b, the centre o of the arc g h j, which
is terminated towards the outer extremity of the bracket
by a smaller arc g i. Then, with a radius of about
2 feet 10| inches, determine the centre of the arc e db;
which should be a tangent to the circle iab and to the
perpendicular passing through e; and from the same centre,
with a radius increased by f of an inch, describe another
arc, which will represent the thickness of that part of the
bracket. At the axis of the bolt E, which tends towards
the centre above named, set off from the first arc the dis-
tance 31 in., and upon the horizontal line m l determine
the point l through which the outline of the back of the
bracket is to pass ; then with a radius of 3 feet 8 inches
draw the arc k l, join Jc j by a short tangential arc and
finish the part towards l as shown in the figure. Concen-
tric with the circles k l and b e respectively, the arcs p n
and p r are to be drawn, and rounded off into each other
and the horizontal r n, as shown.

The construction of Fig. 7, which is a partial front view
of the bracket, presents no difficulty; and by the help of

Figs. 6 and 7, the plan Fig. 8 may be easily drawn, follow-
ing the same method for the determination of the curve
b c d e as that pointed out in reference to the standard.
The lines and letters of reference on the figures will suffi-
ciently explain the application to the present example.
The cover, which in Fig. 8 is supposed to be removed, is
shown in front elevation at Fig. 9.

Projections of a Rail and Chair.—Plate XIV.

Figs. 1 and 2 are an elevation and plan of a railway
chair, with a piece of rail keyed into it, in use on the
Paris and Strasburg Railway. Fig. 3 is a vertical section
by the centre line a- a in plan, with the position reversed
as respects Fig. 1, to show the inclination of the two rails
forming the way. Fig. 4 is an end view of the chair, and
Fig. 5 of the rail.

The sole, A, of the chair is flat on the under side to rest
on the sleepers, with the jaws B, B', and stiffening flanges
C, C'. The spike-holes a, a, are formed in the sole. D is
the rail, and E the wood key for fixing it in the chair.
The rail, Fig. 5, is symmetrical on both axes be, d e ; the
key is also symmetrical on its diagonals shown in Fig. 1,
so that it may be driven in with either side uppermost.

The configuration of the rail is reduced to its elements
in Fig. 5, where the elementary curves and straight lines
are indicated; the construction may obviously be com-
pleted by the aid of the elementary problems already

The configuration of the chair is also reduced to its
elements in Figs. 1 and 3; they are given with great cir-
cumstantiality, more as exercises, than as examples for
execution; as the outlines of chairs are usually sketched
in without a close adherence to circular outlines.

Projections of Ratchet Wheels and Fluted Columns.
Plate XV.

Figs. 1 and 2 are a plan and elevation of a cylinder
grooved on its circumference; of which one half is in-
dented with triangular grooves, and the other half with
rectangular grooves.

To construct the horizontal projection, Fig. 1, describe
two circles on the centre 0, the outer one, F F, to define
the extreme limits of the cylinder, and the inner one, E E,
the bottoms of the grooves. Describe a third circle, A B,
of a large diameter, and divide it into twice as many equal
parts as there are grooves; or, in the case before us, 48
parts, for 24 grooves. To do so, draw two diameters A B,
C D, at right angles, and subdivide the intervals between
them, as indicated in the drawing, and according to means
already described for dividing circles. From the points of
division draw radii cutting the given circles into the same
number of equal parts. Then, to complete the triangular
grooves, join the alternate points of intersection a, b, c, d;
the rectangular grooves require no additional lines, as they
are formed by the radial and circular lines already drawn.

Figs. 4, 5, 6, represent ratchet wheels with two different
forms of teeth. The preliminary steps are the same as in
the first case. To facilitate the drawing of the curved
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