Armengaud, Jacques Eugène; Leblanc, César Nicolas   [Hrsg.]; Armengaud, Jacques Eugène   [Hrsg.]; Armengaud, Charles   [Hrsg.]
The engineer and machinist's drawing-book: a complete course of instruction for the practical engineer: comprising linear drawing - projections - eccentric curves - the various forms of gearing - reciprocating machinery - sketching and drawing from the machine - projection of shadows - tinting and colouring - and perspective. Illustrated by numerous engravings on wood and steel. Including select details, and complete machines. Forming a progressive series of lessons in drawing, and examples of approved construction — Glasgow, 1855

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DRAWING OF MACHINERY.

73

elevation on a vertical plane, parallel to tlie axis, and per-
pendicular to the centre line of the trunnions; and the
latter, a horizontal plan of the cylinder. The engraving
shows the method of deducing the oblique view from
these two square views, the outlines being projected either
in straight lines or ellipses, according as they are to repre-
sent straight lines or circles. In the same way the
oblique section, Fig. 7, and plan, Fig. 5, are derived from
the two square views, Figs. 4 and 6, the first of which is
a section made by a vertical plane passing through the
centre line of the cylinder and of the valve-chest, and the
second, a horizontal section on the line 1-2. The letters
and lines of construction on the various figures indicate
the methods of constructing these views.

Skeleton Drawing of a Stationary Steam-Engine.
—Plate XXXIY.

Skeleton drawings are got up to show the design and
arrangement of the subjects illustrated. The fixed and
ruling masses are drawn generally in outline, with just
sufficient detail to indicate their situations and attach-
ments. The reciprocating and revolving masses are gene-
rally indicated by their centre lines simply, except the
principal shafts, which are commonly done in outline;
fly-wheels are indicated, in side elevation, by circles
representing their outer circumference, and toothed wheels
by their pitch circles. The extreme positions of the
vibrating parts, and the circles of revolution of cranks, &c.,
are shown by lines. Skeleton drawings are thus useful
both in originally setting out a machine, and in erecting it;
they are plainer and more explicit for their purposes than
fully detailed drawings are, and are got up more speedily,
and with less labour.

Fig. 1 is a vertical elevation of the stationary engine
selected for an example. Fig. 2 is a plan. The engine is
double, that is, it has two cylinders, a, a, working into
one crank-shaft b, through the intermediate reciprocating
beams c, c, represented in the elevation by their centre
lines. The parallel motion cl, connecting the piston, and
its rod, with the beam and the connecting rod e, shown
in two positions, and coupling the beam to the crank /,
are intelligibly represented.

The framing g is of cast-iron, and is the base which
carries and unites the whole superstructure. The columns
h are based upon it, and run up directly under the main-
centre bearings i, on which the beams vibrate. The columns
support also the beams h at the middle, the ends of the
beams being built into the walls. The four walls l,
enclose the engine; m is the foundation of the engine,
and is of substantial masonry. In building the founda-
tion, openings are left for the reception of such parts of
the machine as are situated below the level of the base,
and also for the reception of the holding-down bolts, plates,
and cotters.

The spur-wheel and pinion n, o, are represented in
the plan by plain rectangular outlines, representing their
diameters, and the breadth of the teeth. An inspection of

the other parts of the drawing will elucidate their mean-
ing and propriety, without further explanation here.

Skeleton-Drawing of a Goods-Locomotive.—
Plate XXXV.

This is an exact copy of the skeleton drawing prepared
by Messrs. Sharp Brothers and Co., for the class of goods-
engine here represented, and as made by them. It is an
excellent proof of how much useful matter may be thrown
into a drawing of the kind, with a moderate amount of
labour. In this drawing, although much is left undone in
detail, yet everything affecting the design and arrange-
ment is completely worked out, and a place is assigned to
everything. The ruling dimensions are also inserted. It
is beyond our province to examine this engine critically;
we may only say that it has many good points, and that,
independently of the merits of the drawing, as such, it
is deserving of careful and deliberate study.

Selection of Working Detail-Drawings of a
Goods-Locomotive.—Plate XXXYI.

The contents of this plate show how the details are
worked out in the same purpose-like manner as the
general arrangements are in the preceding plate. The
upper views show portions of the boiler in detail, and
their connection with the framing and the cylinders ; the
lower views show parts of the framing and the machinery.

In setting out the smokebox, three views are dedicated
to it, Figs. 1, 2, 3; which embrace also the cylinders and the
fore part of the frame, as the several elements are fitted
together, and are shown best in conjunction. The longi-
tudinal section, Fig. 2, shows the position and inclination
of the cylinders, their fixings to the side frameplates, and
the arrangements of the holding bolts. As the smoke-
box is intended to embrace the cylinders at both ends, its
length is regulated by theirs, and its front and back plates
are suitably sloped to fit them. The front and back plates,
again, being differently disposed, it becomes necessary to
show them individually, as in Figs. 1 and 3 respectively.
In Fig. l,the form of the front plate, and its junctions with
the cylinders and the frameplates, are shown. The doorway
and the door are also shown, with the distribution of the
hinges and the disk-fastenings. The outline of the doorway is
shown to follow nearly the contour of the outer tubes,
which are inserted in the drawing for the purpose of
regulating the outline. The fore ends of the cylinders and
valve-chests are also shown in due relation with the front
plate, duly clear of the door and the fastenings, and with
their joining flanges. The front covers are shown on
one cylinder, and on the half of the valve-chest; the
others are removed, as a repetition would convey no new
information, and as the exposure of the end of the cylin-
der shows more clearly the forms and connections of the
castings. The disposal of the bolts for the front cover
is fully shown, and for the two extreme bolts on each
side, the frame plates are shown to be hollowed out to
clear the nuts.

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