Armengaud, Jacques Eugène; Leblanc, César Nicolas [Hrsg.]; Armengaud, Jacques Eugène [Hrsg.]; Armengaud, Charles [Hrsg.]
The engineer and machinist's drawing-book: a complete course of instruction for the practical engineer: comprising linear drawing - projections - eccentric curves - the various forms of gearing - reciprocating machinery - sketching and drawing from the machine - projection of shadows - tinting and colouring - and perspective. Illustrated by numerous engravings on wood and steel. Including select details, and complete machines. Forming a progressive series of lessons in drawing, and examples of approved construction — Glasgow, 1855

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gibs and cotters to bring up tbe pieces to a bearing. On
this plan, the bearers are made with tenons, keyed on the
inside of the shrouding, as in Figs. 7 and 8; and the oaken
arms are joined to the shrouding with tenons, and wrought-
iron straps and cotters, as in Figs. 9, 10.

The floats, C, are of oak, and are fixed to the carriers,
with the bolts l. The counter-floats, S, join the floats C
to the bottom pieces, S', and are screwed to the triangular
pieces m. The open spaces between the ends of the floats
and the bottom pieces are outlets for the escape of air from
the buckets when the water flows in.

In drawing the water-wheel, lay down two intersecting
lines at right angles, and on the centre o describe a circle
with the radius of the wheel and the channel. Divide the
circle into as many equal parts as there are floats in the
wheel; it being premised that the number of floats should
contain the number of arms of the wheel, a whole number
of times, so as to leave the shrouding free for the attach-
ment of the floats. Through the points of division draw
radial lines to represent the sides of the floatboard-brackets.
Draw two circles from the centre o, to represent the shroud-
ing ; and draw one bracket and float complete with bolts

and nuts. As all the brackets and floats are of one form
and placed concentrically with the wheel, a series of circles
are drawn from the centre o, to indicate the central ends
of these objects, and also the position and dimensions
radially of the bolts, nuts, and cotters employed. For the
method of delineation of the spokes of the water-wheel
and the gearing, we may refer to previous chapters.

As a subject for sketching, the water-wheel is simple,
as it consists of few different parts. Having measured
the diameter, or the radius, and the breadth of the wheel,
by a tape-line or otherwise, and counted the numbers of
floats and arms, there remains only to sketch a single float
with its brackets complete, and to take sections of one of
the shroudings, the arms, and the boss and shaft.

In sketching the sluice, a section is made of the sluice-
frame, and of the sluice ; then a sketch of one of the racks,
with its pinion and friction roller, and of the wheel and
tangent-screw. The inclination of the sluice may be
found by means of a plumb-line, as indicated, which gives
the vertical and horizontal bearings of the sluice. Spirit
levels and long straight-edges, are also of service, in finding
the respective levels of the various parts.



Workshops of the Oxford, Worcester, and Wolver-
hampton Railway, at Worcester.—Plates XLVI.—

These works have been designed by John Fowler, C.E.,
the engineer-in-chief of the railway above named, for
the maintenance of the rolling stock. The general plan,
Plate XLVI., exhibits the arrangement of the works.
They are contained within a rectangular outline, with a
frontage of 350 feet 6 inches, and 223 feet 6 inches on the
flank : and so compactly placed that all the parts of the
works are at the shortest possible distance apart, and as
easy of communication as the physical conditions of space
and roominess will permit. Moreover, those parts of the
works between which there is the most intimate connec-
tion, and the most frequent traffic, are grouped together ;
and the internal communications are further facilitated by
lines of rails laid down through the works, longitudinally
and transversely.

The works are in two principal divisions, or blocks of
shops, covering each an area of 133 feet 3 inches frontage,
and 223 feet 6 inches deep, placed 84 feet apart. On the
right hand are grouped together the shops for heavy work,
namely, the engine erecting shop, the fitting shop, the
smithy, the boiler shop, and the grindery. On the left


hand are the carriage and waggon repairing shops, the
trimming shop, the saw-mill and timber store, and the
carriage smithy and spring shop. Thus the light and
heavy works are kept entirely apart, for the mutual con-
venience of both. In the interval, of 84 feet, are placed the
heavy smithy, the furnaces, the boilers, and the chimney,
towards the back ; and the engine and carriage stores,
and the general offices, towards the front. The remainder
of the area is an open yard.

The engine-shop is 42 feet wide and 175 feet 6 inches
long inside, and has berths for eleven engines with their
tenders. This shop is properly placed on the extreme
right of the building, to afford free entrance and exit for
the engines without interfering with any other depart-
ment ; and a gateway is provided for each berth, through
which a passage is directly effected when required. The
space allotted for each engine and tender is 42 feet long^
the width of the shop, and 15 feet wide. The shop has
30 feet of clear height, as shown on the vertical sections,
Plates XLVII., XLVIII., and there are two gangways,
20 feet above the rails, one on each side, extending the
whole length of the shop, to carry one or more travelling
cranes for raising and transporting the engines in whole
or in part.

The fitting-shop is of the same length and width as the
erecting shop, but has only 18 feet of clear height This
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