0.5

1 cm

DRAWING OF WORKSHOPS.

77

gibs and cotters to bring up tbe pieces to a bearing. On

this plan, the bearers are made with tenons, keyed on the

inside of the shrouding, as in Figs. 7 and 8; and the oaken

arms are joined to the shrouding with tenons, and wrought-

iron straps and cotters, as in Figs. 9, 10.

The floats, C, are of oak, and are fixed to the carriers,

with the bolts l. The counter-floats, S, join the floats C

to the bottom pieces, S', and are screwed to the triangular

pieces m. The open spaces between the ends of the floats

and the bottom pieces are outlets for the escape of air from

the buckets when the water flows in.

In drawing the water-wheel, lay down two intersecting

lines at right angles, and on the centre o describe a circle

with the radius of the wheel and the channel. Divide the

circle into as many equal parts as there are floats in the

wheel; it being premised that the number of floats should

contain the number of arms of the wheel, a whole number

of times, so as to leave the shrouding free for the attach-

ment of the floats. Through the points of division draw

radial lines to represent the sides of the floatboard-brackets.

Draw two circles from the centre o, to represent the shroud-

ing ; and draw one bracket and float complete with bolts

and nuts. As all the brackets and floats are of one form

and placed concentrically with the wheel, a series of circles

are drawn from the centre o, to indicate the central ends

of these objects, and also the position and dimensions

radially of the bolts, nuts, and cotters employed. For the

method of delineation of the spokes of the water-wheel

and the gearing, we may refer to previous chapters.

As a subject for sketching, the water-wheel is simple,

as it consists of few different parts. Having measured

the diameter, or the radius, and the breadth of the wheel,

by a tape-line or otherwise, and counted the numbers of

floats and arms, there remains only to sketch a single float

with its brackets complete, and to take sections of one of

the shroudings, the arms, and the boss and shaft.

In sketching the sluice, a section is made of the sluice-

frame, and of the sluice ; then a sketch of one of the racks,

with its pinion and friction roller, and of the wheel and

tangent-screw. The inclination of the sluice may be

found by means of a plumb-line, as indicated, which gives

the vertical and horizontal bearings of the sluice. Spirit

levels and long straight-edges, are also of service, in finding

the respective levels of the various parts.

PART FIFTH.

DRAW me OF

Workshops of the Oxford, Worcester, and Wolver-

hampton Railway, at Worcester.—Plates XLVI.—

XLIX.

These works have been designed by John Fowler, C.E.,

the engineer-in-chief of the railway above named, for

the maintenance of the rolling stock. The general plan,

Plate XLVI., exhibits the arrangement of the works.

They are contained within a rectangular outline, with a

frontage of 350 feet 6 inches, and 223 feet 6 inches on the

flank : and so compactly placed that all the parts of the

works are at the shortest possible distance apart, and as

easy of communication as the physical conditions of space

and roominess will permit. Moreover, those parts of the

works between which there is the most intimate connec-

tion, and the most frequent traffic, are grouped together ;

and the internal communications are further facilitated by

lines of rails laid down through the works, longitudinally

and transversely.

The works are in two principal divisions, or blocks of

shops, covering each an area of 133 feet 3 inches frontage,

and 223 feet 6 inches deep, placed 84 feet apart. On the

right hand are grouped together the shops for heavy work,

namely, the engine erecting shop, the fitting shop, the

smithy, the boiler shop, and the grindery. On the left

WORKSHOPS.

hand are the carriage and waggon repairing shops, the

trimming shop, the saw-mill and timber store, and the

carriage smithy and spring shop. Thus the light and

heavy works are kept entirely apart, for the mutual con-

venience of both. In the interval, of 84 feet, are placed the

heavy smithy, the furnaces, the boilers, and the chimney,

towards the back ; and the engine and carriage stores,

and the general offices, towards the front. The remainder

of the area is an open yard.

The engine-shop is 42 feet wide and 175 feet 6 inches

long inside, and has berths for eleven engines with their

tenders. This shop is properly placed on the extreme

right of the building, to afford free entrance and exit for

the engines without interfering with any other depart-

ment ; and a gateway is provided for each berth, through

which a passage is directly effected when required. The

space allotted for each engine and tender is 42 feet long^

the width of the shop, and 15 feet wide. The shop has

30 feet of clear height, as shown on the vertical sections,

Plates XLVII., XLVIII., and there are two gangways,

20 feet above the rails, one on each side, extending the

whole length of the shop, to carry one or more travelling

cranes for raising and transporting the engines in whole

or in part.

The fitting-shop is of the same length and width as the

erecting shop, but has only 18 feet of clear height This

77

gibs and cotters to bring up tbe pieces to a bearing. On

this plan, the bearers are made with tenons, keyed on the

inside of the shrouding, as in Figs. 7 and 8; and the oaken

arms are joined to the shrouding with tenons, and wrought-

iron straps and cotters, as in Figs. 9, 10.

The floats, C, are of oak, and are fixed to the carriers,

with the bolts l. The counter-floats, S, join the floats C

to the bottom pieces, S', and are screwed to the triangular

pieces m. The open spaces between the ends of the floats

and the bottom pieces are outlets for the escape of air from

the buckets when the water flows in.

In drawing the water-wheel, lay down two intersecting

lines at right angles, and on the centre o describe a circle

with the radius of the wheel and the channel. Divide the

circle into as many equal parts as there are floats in the

wheel; it being premised that the number of floats should

contain the number of arms of the wheel, a whole number

of times, so as to leave the shrouding free for the attach-

ment of the floats. Through the points of division draw

radial lines to represent the sides of the floatboard-brackets.

Draw two circles from the centre o, to represent the shroud-

ing ; and draw one bracket and float complete with bolts

and nuts. As all the brackets and floats are of one form

and placed concentrically with the wheel, a series of circles

are drawn from the centre o, to indicate the central ends

of these objects, and also the position and dimensions

radially of the bolts, nuts, and cotters employed. For the

method of delineation of the spokes of the water-wheel

and the gearing, we may refer to previous chapters.

As a subject for sketching, the water-wheel is simple,

as it consists of few different parts. Having measured

the diameter, or the radius, and the breadth of the wheel,

by a tape-line or otherwise, and counted the numbers of

floats and arms, there remains only to sketch a single float

with its brackets complete, and to take sections of one of

the shroudings, the arms, and the boss and shaft.

In sketching the sluice, a section is made of the sluice-

frame, and of the sluice ; then a sketch of one of the racks,

with its pinion and friction roller, and of the wheel and

tangent-screw. The inclination of the sluice may be

found by means of a plumb-line, as indicated, which gives

the vertical and horizontal bearings of the sluice. Spirit

levels and long straight-edges, are also of service, in finding

the respective levels of the various parts.

PART FIFTH.

DRAW me OF

Workshops of the Oxford, Worcester, and Wolver-

hampton Railway, at Worcester.—Plates XLVI.—

XLIX.

These works have been designed by John Fowler, C.E.,

the engineer-in-chief of the railway above named, for

the maintenance of the rolling stock. The general plan,

Plate XLVI., exhibits the arrangement of the works.

They are contained within a rectangular outline, with a

frontage of 350 feet 6 inches, and 223 feet 6 inches on the

flank : and so compactly placed that all the parts of the

works are at the shortest possible distance apart, and as

easy of communication as the physical conditions of space

and roominess will permit. Moreover, those parts of the

works between which there is the most intimate connec-

tion, and the most frequent traffic, are grouped together ;

and the internal communications are further facilitated by

lines of rails laid down through the works, longitudinally

and transversely.

The works are in two principal divisions, or blocks of

shops, covering each an area of 133 feet 3 inches frontage,

and 223 feet 6 inches deep, placed 84 feet apart. On the

right hand are grouped together the shops for heavy work,

namely, the engine erecting shop, the fitting shop, the

smithy, the boiler shop, and the grindery. On the left

WORKSHOPS.

hand are the carriage and waggon repairing shops, the

trimming shop, the saw-mill and timber store, and the

carriage smithy and spring shop. Thus the light and

heavy works are kept entirely apart, for the mutual con-

venience of both. In the interval, of 84 feet, are placed the

heavy smithy, the furnaces, the boilers, and the chimney,

towards the back ; and the engine and carriage stores,

and the general offices, towards the front. The remainder

of the area is an open yard.

The engine-shop is 42 feet wide and 175 feet 6 inches

long inside, and has berths for eleven engines with their

tenders. This shop is properly placed on the extreme

right of the building, to afford free entrance and exit for

the engines without interfering with any other depart-

ment ; and a gateway is provided for each berth, through

which a passage is directly effected when required. The

space allotted for each engine and tender is 42 feet long^

the width of the shop, and 15 feet wide. The shop has

30 feet of clear height, as shown on the vertical sections,

Plates XLVII., XLVIII., and there are two gangways,

20 feet above the rails, one on each side, extending the

whole length of the shop, to carry one or more travelling

cranes for raising and transporting the engines in whole

or in part.

The fitting-shop is of the same length and width as the

erecting shop, but has only 18 feet of clear height This