Glasgow Archaeological Society [Hrsg.]
The Antonine Wall report: being an account of excavations, etc., made under the direction of the Glasgow Archæological Society during 1890 - 93 — Glasgow, 1899

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1 cm
the antonine wall KEPOltT.


that he does not in direct terms say where the vallum was
situated, leaving that to be inferred from a subsequent passage1
in his work.

As regards the position of the first or earth wall of Gildas,
erected, according to that author, after the "first embassy, or about
a.d. 414, Bede is more specific. Still following Gildas as regards
the circumstances of its erection, he adds material statements of
his own about it.2 It was a very broad and very high vallum:

aestimant sed vallo distinguendam the force of the enemy, is made of sods

putavit. Mnrus etenim de lapidibus which are cut from the ground and

vallum vero quo ad repellendam vim built high above the earth like a wall,

hostium castra muniuntur, fit de ces- so that it has in front of it the fosse

pitibus, quibus circumcisis e terra velut from which the sods were taken, upon

murus extruitur altus supra terram ita which stakes of the strongest wood are

ut in ante sit fossa de qua levati sunt fixed pointing forward. Thus Severus

cespites supra quam sudes de lignis drew from sea to sea a great fosse and

fortissimis praefiguntur. Itaque Severus a very strong vallum fortified with

magnam fossam firmissimumque vallum numerous towers upon it. In that

crebris insuper turribus conmunitum vicinity at the city of York he died

a mari ad mare duxit. Ibique apud from disease.
Eboracum oppidum morbo obiit.

The passages borrowed from Vegetius are from lib. i., cap. 24—"Caespites cir-
cumciduntur e terra et ex his velut murus instruitur aitus [tribus pedibus] supra
terram ita ut in ante sit fossa de qua levati sunt caespites . . . supra quam
sudes de lignis fortissimis . . . praefiguntur." For full text see p. 30, infra.

1 Quoted infra, next note.

2 Bede, Hist. Eccl., i., cap. 12. Mon. On account, therefore, of the enmity of
Hist. Brit., I., 118. these races the Britons, sending deputies

Ob harum ergo infestationem gentium to Romewith lettersand tearful prayers,

Brettones legatos Romam cum epistulis implored help and promised perpetual

mittentes lacrimosis precibus auxilia submission if the threatening enemy

flagitabant subjectionemque continuam were driven off. An armed legion was

dummodo hostis imminens longius at once sent to them, which, when it

arceretur promittebant. Quibus mox had been transported to the island and

legio destinatur armata quae ubi had engaged with the enemy, laying low

insulam advecta et congressa est cum a great multitude of them, drove the

hostibus magnam eorum multitudinem rest out of the bounds of the allies and

sternens ceteros sociorum finibus exhorted them, thus set free for the time

expulit: eosque interim a dirissima from the direst oppression, to construct

depressione liberates hortata est across the island between the two seas a

instruere inter duo maria trans insulam wall which might serve as a protection to

murum qui arcendis hostibus posset them for curbing the enemy, and thus

esse praesidio: sicque domum cum they returned home in great triumph,

triumpho magno reversa est. At But the islanders building the wall

insulam murum quern jussi fuerant non which they had been ordered to erect

tarn lapidibus quam cespitibus eon- did so not so much of stone as of sods,

struentes utpote nullum tanti operis with the result that, having no architect

artificem habentes ad nihil utilem for so great a work, they built it to no

statuunt. Fecerunt autem eum inter purpose. However, they made it

duo freta vel sinus de quibus diximus between two firths or bays of the sea of

maris per milia passuum plurima : ut which we have spoken, for many miles,

ubi aquarum munitio deerat ibi praesidio so that where the defence of water was

valli fines suos ab hostium inruptione lacking there they might by the help
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