Glasgow Archaeological Society [Hrsg.]
The Antonine Wall report: being an account of excavations, etc., made under the direction of the Glasgow Archæological Society during 1890 - 93 — Glasgow, 1899

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piece uncut between the two faces of the section, it had a dense
peaty character, and certainly contained some wood. A sample
yielded 13'70 per cent, of vegetable matter. This portion of the
layer was exceptional in character and position, being not far
from the south kerb, from which the southern expansion starts.
One of the lines higher up in the vallum yielded 2022 per cent,
of vegetable matter. The whitish clayey substance rests at
several points on the black lines. The lines are clearly pro-
tracted beyond the north kerb. On the south side of the vallum
in the southern expansion, processes of lamination, resembling
those in the vallum, are plainly visible, but the soil of which
it is composed appears much the same as that of the vallum

The fosse under section 11 occupies a ledge over 50 feet lower
than the top of the scarp, which is several feet lower in level
than the kerbs of the vallum. The line of the ditch is at this
point near the summit of a short rise, in its course from the
stone dyke. There is, as already mentioned, a slack or dip
in the hill-top at this stone dyke. This slack continues down
the face of the hill between the twin heights of the third
ridge. At this point, while, as previously stated, the vallum
swerves at the top of the hill, the ditch beneath goes straight
on. From that point onward, while passing under section
No. 11, the features which distinguished the fosse under section
No. 10 are repeated. There can be little doubt that here an
existing precipitous rock face was made more precipitous still,
with the fosse at the foot of it. The rocks made a virtually
perpendicular scarp of the most formidable kind. The ditch
is so much filled up that its present dimensions can give no
idea of its original size or shape. Opposite the slack or dip
referred to, beside the stone dyke, the outer mound is more
or less horizontal on the top for about 18 feet, after which
the fall of the ground, from which the mound is indistinguish-
able, is nearly 20 feet in 44. The hill-slopes beyond this to
the north are all very steep.

Proceeding westward from this section, the following measure-
ments of the berm and scarp have been taken. From the very
top of the cliff, which is 62 feet north of the vallum at a point
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