Glasgow Archaeological Society [Hrsg.]
The Antonine Wall report: being an account of excavations, etc., made under the direction of the Glasgow Archæological Society during 1890 - 93 — Glasgow, 1899

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1 cm


above the ordinary base level. The soil of the vallum is the
whitish and ochreish red sand of which the Bonnyside cuttings
mainly consist. A few small stones, mostly of the white
sandstone of the district, appear in the body of the vallum, the
largest being under 3 inches by 2. The layering is pronounced;
the dark lines are thick and black. Measuring upward from
the base, at a point near the centre, 8 dark lines are found:—

1. On base 1-| inch thick.

2. inches up, i inch thick.

3. 7 „ I

4. 9 „ -Jr

■5. 12 „ i

G. 15| „ 1£

1. 19 „ i

8- 22 „ I

Above this point, the soil is too much disturbed by roots to admit
of certainty as to other lines, broken traces of which, however,
exist. It calls for note that the berm, where cut, had a mossy
top or mould of 4 inches. The layers in the vallum are pro-
tracted about 6 inches on the south, and 4 inches on the north,
beyond the lines of the kerbs. When the section gets clear
of the kerb, there is seen an immediate difference in the
soil: the ochreish red, if visible at all, loses its brilliancy, and
the whole assumes a darker, browner tint than the soils within
the line of the kerbs. The fosse, about 41 feet broad, is here
more than usually filled up with mossy growth, which rises to
within about 4 feet of a line drawn from the present tops of
scarp and counterscarp. Hereabout, the face of the sides of the
ditch seems to have been strengthened at sundry places by
stones laid on. They still peep out here and there through the
grass. The outer mound, flat and about 54 feet broad, is of
whitish sand. A small section in the middle of it reached moss
at a depth of 5 feet, which is thought to denote the original
surface before the outer mound was laid over it.

About 60 yards east of this section, there is another semi-
circular expansion of the south face of the vallum—this time
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