Glasgow Archaeological Society [Hrsg.]
The Antonine Wall report: being an account of excavations, etc., made under the direction of the Glasgow Archæological Society during 1890 - 93 — Glasgow, 1899

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1 cm


and the military road which runs by the side of the vallum. Near it was
found its base, a stone 28 x 26 inches and 5 inches in thickness. It itself is
36 inches high, 17 inches wide, 10 inches deep, with 6 lines of 2-inch letters:
the lettering is damaged on both sides, one letter having been lost at the
beginning and two or three at the end of each line. I am indebted to
Mr. Neilson for squeezes and photographs. The text of the inscription is:—

D~\eo Silv[ano G]aristan[ius T]ustianu[s] praef(ectus) coh{ortis) i ffa[mior(wm,y]
v(otum s(olvit) l(ibens) l(aetus mierito).

"Erected to the god Silvanus by Caristanius Iustianus, praefect of the
First Cohort of Hamii, in willing payment of a vow."

This text is, I think, certain. Caristanius is a rare nomen, probably of
Italian origin. One C. Caristanius Pronto governed a province in Asia
Minor during the reign of Domitian, and some Caristanii, probably his
freedmen, set up an inscription at Antioch in Pisidia. The name also occurs
at Home and Capua, and, though it is rare, I do not hesitate to restore it
here.1 Similarly VSTIANU in line 2 is plainly Justianus.

The monument appears to have belonged to some small shrine outside the
Barr Hill fort. The small Roman frontier forts, such as those on the Vallum
of Pius, the Wall of Hadrian, and the. German Limes, had usually a few
buildings constituting a kind of humble suburb outside the ramparts—an
edifice which is best taken to be a Bath, huts for women folk, &c, and
an occasional shrine or isolated altar, either in the Bath or standing alone.
Thus at Castlehill an altar to the Campestres was found outside the fort in
1826: thus the new Barr Hill altar came to be found in 1895.

In commenting on the monument, I propose first to trace the history of
the cohort of Hamii and then to venture some general remarks upon the
garrisons of the Vallum of Pius and the length of time during which the
Romans held the vallum.

The First Cohort of Hamii is mentioned on another Barr Hill inscription,
found in the sixteenth century, but since lost. It was a sepulchral slab with
conventional ornamentation, and inscribed—D. M. G. Iuli Marcellini praef.
coh. i. Sarnior.—" To the memory of C. Iulius Marcellinus, praefect of the
First Cohort of Hamii." It can also be traced at Carvoran on Hadrian's
Wall on four or perhaps five stones. The two most important are—

(1) C.I.L., vii. 748, Fortunae Aug. pro salute L. Aeli Caesaris, ex vim, T.
Flaiyius) Secunduspraef. coh. i. Hamiorum sagittar{iorum) v.s.l.m.

(2) ib., 758, Deae Suriae, sub Calpumio Agricola leg. Aug. pr(p)pr(aetore),
A. Licinius Clemens praef. coh. i. IIamior(um).

The first of these shows that the cohort was an archer regiment, and was
at Carvoran in a.d. 135 or 136; the second shows its presence there in or

iSee C.I.L., iii. 6852, vi. 14406, x. 4417, 8059(93), and Klebs, Prosopographia, i.
Why Or. Holder includes the name in his Altkeltischer Sprachschatz I do not
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