Egypt Exploration Fund [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1894-1895

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Guaeco-Roman Egypt.


Prof. Mahaffy has published an interesting Ptolemaic papyrus, dated
in the seventh year, apparently of Ptolemy Euergetes [b.c. 240], and
containing a declaration for purposes of taxation, enumerating the
writer's family, slaves, and property in corn and other produce.13 The
same article contains copies of some inscriptions of the reigns of Ptolemy
Philopator and Ptolemy Alexander, together with a number of
inscriptions from Nubia, a few of which are new, while the rest have
already been published in the Corpus Inscriptionum Grsecorum. For
these last some corrected readings are given.

Prof. Nicole has printed the text of another papyrus in his own
collection, a petition, dated a.d. 207, and addressed to a eKaTovTap^r^
(= centurion) by some individuals who had farmed the contract for
some corn-land." It is interesting as supplying the name of the
prefect, Subatianus Aquila, and thereby justifying the reading of the
inscription in CIL III. 75, where sub Subatiano has been generally
altered to sub Atiaito. A papyrus published last year by Prof. Nicole
in the lievue Archeologique (see No. 22 in last year's report) has been
reproduced and studied afresh by H. Ertnan.1'

An article by Prof. Wilcken16 calls attention to two papyri in which
the date is given by the years rfc Kalo-apos KpaTi]aem ("of Cassar's
rule"), which he takes to indicate an attempt to use the date of
Augustus' capture of Egypt as the basis for an era. That date was the
1st of August, b.c. 30 ; but since the Egyptian year was reckoned from
the 29th of August, it was more convenient to make the era begin from
the latter date; so that during the reign of Augustus the reckoning by
this era and that by his regnal years were identical. There are traces,
on coins, of the era-dating having been used occasionally in the early
years of Tiberius, but there is also evidence, on papyri, of dates by the
regnal years of Tiberius quite at the beginning of his reign; so that it
is clear that the use of the era t?;? Kaiaapo<; /cpaTi'jaews, which was never
generally adopted even in Augustus' own reign, lapsed altogether in
that of his successor. Other examples of it, during the reign of
Augustus, in addition to those quoted by Wilcken, occur in some papyri
now in the Rainer collection at Vienna.

The following articles dealing with the papyrus literature in general I
have not yet been able to see: a general survey of the papyri relating to
Roman Egypt, by H. Blumner"' ; and a review of the first volume of the
Bjirlin publication, giviug a classified summary of its contents, by R.

The appearance, during the past year, of the final part of the
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