Ars: časopis Ústavu Dejín Umenia Slovenskej Akadémie Vied — 2.1968

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any connection with England. J. Evans is right in inter -
preting these interlacing arches as traditionalism — of
French origin, most likely. The late Romanesque style
of the Conventual Church in Lehnin (Fig. 36) and also
the church in Jerichow make use of these interlacing
arches (R. Hamann, Deutsche und französische Kunst
in Mittelalter II, Marburg 1923, p. 5, Fig. 4, 9). These
buildings belong in accord with Hamann’s research to a
large area of late Romanesque pièces of architecture,
including also big buildings in Worms and Bamberg.
To this category we may count also on the basis of the
above motif a late Romanesque Slovák monument,
i. e. the church in Gutor near Šamorin (V. Mencl,
Středověká architektura na Slovensku — Medieval Archi-
tecture in Slovakia — I, Prague 1937; p. 306, Fig. 95).
The Cistercian Church in Lehnin, erected in 1200—1270,
shows in its oldest parts (groundfioor of the main apse)
an additional composition of a frieze of arches (cf. H. P.
Eydoux, L’architecture des Englisses Cisterciennes d’Al-
lemagne, Paris 1952, p. 54). Intersecting arches are a later
product of changing project — chronologically they
coincide with the close of the Romanesque Era. Professor
Richter (Barokní prvky v pozdněrománské architektuře
■— Baroque éléments in late Romanesque architecture —
Akord 1935, pp. 4 sq.) discussed the motif of the frieze
of arches and classified the additive frieze of arches as a
highly Romanesque feature. The latě Romanesque con-
ception wants to do away with the addition and trans -
forms the independent arches into a wavy line. Besides
the wavy line we find the intersecting row of arches as
another possibility of getting away from the additive
principle. Uniting and interpenetrating are in the long
run afflliated processes, they are both characteristic
features of the latě stage. The assumption that with
Peter Parler it was late Romanesque architecture which
lead him to introduce intersecting arches is one available
explanation. Parler is the very personification of the
style — implying freely acting will of a great artist.
Irrational kinship evokes by the act of choice from both
distant time and space the needed structures. Search
in history finds old forms and endows them with new
function. Thus, for instance, Parler is eager to give the
arch different formulation than it had before. For this
reason he rejects in some applications the pointed arch
and rèturns to the Romanesque round arch. Historical
character may be attributed also to the “renaissance”
of the plastical cylindrical vault shafts, the source of this
inspiration being probably Cologne (G. Fehr, Benedikt
Ried, München 1961, 87 sq.). The revived application
of some Romanesque forms assumes, however, in the
case of Parler an essentially different character than the
Romanesque renaissance towards the close of the Middle
Ages, as the phenomenon was interpreted by V. Birnbaum
and D. Frey. Both, the Romanesque Renaissance and
Parler’s resorting to the Romanesque and the transition
styles, hâve one thing in common, i. e. taking up again
that which is distant in time. If, however, this Parler’s
historism is a “Wahlverwandschaft” (affinity by choice)
and results in the artist’s own new créative effort, the
Romanesque forms about 1500 represent a sort of inevi-

tability after ail the possibilities of variety hâve been
47 J. Neuwirth, Die Wochenrechnungen, Prague 1890,
p. 401. The formai connections between Cologne and
Prague were in the last years discussed by E. Zimmer-
mann- Deissler, Das Erdgeschoss des Südturms von
Köllner Dom. Köllner Domblatt 14. 1958, pp. 61 sq.;
G. Fehr, 1. c.
48 W. Buchowiecki (1. c„ 31, 285, Fig. 72) assumes
a certain connection between the east end of the Parish
Church in Weidhoffen an der Ybbs and the corresponding
part of the church in Košice. The east end in Weidhoffen
is simpler in contrast to Košice; we may see here in the
Rheinland tradition from Oppenheim the original impulse
bringing the Weidhoffen phenomena into being. The act
of uniting radiating chapels, transformed in the spirit of
the Contemporary development of exterior, with a
transept, which was at that time (subséquent to 1470)
somewhat anachronistic already in spite of its plainness,
tempts us to associate this Austrian building with some
plan of an older date. The church in Weidhoffen is the
work of the Steyer worshop, which, as we know, was an
offspring of St. Stephen’s workshop. In this way we are
led to admit the possibility that in Vienna there existed
designs which were conformed, transformed, and sim-
plified. And finally in literatuře we find that St. Vite’s
collection of plans was transported to Vienna in connec-
tion with the interruption of the church building activity
in Prague at the outset of the Hussite wars.
48a E. Marosi, Beiträge zur Baugeschichte der St. Eli-
sabeth Pfarrkirche von Kassau, Acta historiae artium X,
Budapest 1964, pp. 229 sq.
49 V Mencl, Die Kaschauer Kathedrale, 1. c. 142.
50 R. K. Donin (Der Wiener Stephansdom, 1. c., 246)
believes that the pulling down occurred in 1404 already;
H. Tietze (Geschichte und Beschreibung, 1. c„ 23) gives
the date 1426.
51 Kemény, 1. c., 15: „Item aufzurichten und ab-
zubrechen das geroest zu dem Gewelbe und zu der grossen
toffel fl. 12“. The text may certainly concern the choir,
whose posteriority to the navě can be proved both ar-
cheologically and morphologically. With this date coin-
cides the allusion concerning the donation made for the
érection of the main altar of St. Elizabeth. Kemény,
I. c„ 14, year 1474: „sabbato in die Andree dederunt
domini Johannes Rusdorfer et Johannes Waihhart ad
tabulam sancte Elisabeth f. 50”. With this dating of the
choir is neither out of keeping the vault pattern of the
type „Dreiparallerippenfiguration“, which can be do-
cumented in Austria throughout the whole latter half
of the 15th Century.
52 yyjt. haben vernommen, wie das euer Wohlweisen
dis erbarn meister Steffan steynmetzen uns wohnhaftig,
begerende sei etliche Arbeit bei euch zu verbringen, der
den zu wölben, auch mit stein zu versetzen und ander
Arbeit seiner Meisterschaft genuglich ausrichten kann,
als wir es in des an unsern Pfarrkirchen und etlichen
ander Häusern in unser Stadt zu guter Masze wohl
versucht und bewehrt haben in zu einen werckmeister
unserer Gebende aufgenommen . . . B. Iványi, Bártfa

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