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Zeus Didymaios

Chthonia, and Eros1, but in a passage of profound significance
declared 'that Zeus had transformed himself into Eros, when about
to create' the world2. The cosmogonic Eros, as G. F. Schoemann3
called him, figures also in Orphic literature both early and late4:
the Rhapsodies represent ' delightsome Eros ' as contained in and
issuing from ' the great body of Zeus5'; the Hymns make ' Eros ' a
synonym of'Bakcheus,' whom they invoke as 'Sire of the gods and
Son6'—a manifest echo of the old Thracian creed7.

v. The Double Zeus.

(a) Zeus Didymaios.

If now we set the principal types of Father and Son over against
the principal types of Twin Brethren, we might fairly expect to find

Diels ap. Plat. symp. 178 B, Aristot. met. r. 4. 984b 25 ff., Simpl. in Aristot. phys. p. 39, 18
TTpwrLdTOv fj.ev"Epwra deuiv /x??rio"aTo wdvruv the subject of fj.riTLffa.To is probably 5a.Lfj.ii3V rj
wdvTa Kvfiepvq. {frag. 12, 3 Diels). Aet. 2. 7. 1 in H. Diels Doxographi Graeci Berolini
1879 p. 336, 12 ap. Stob. eel. 1. 22. ia p. 195, 10 ff. Wachsmuth ijvTiva koX halfiova
KvjiepvriTLV Kai kXtjSovxov (so Ftilleborn for KXrjpovxov F.P.) eirovofid'^eL, 5lkt/v re teal
dvdy-KTjv is supposed by J. Burnet Early Greek Philosophy London and Edinburgh 1892
p. 204 to confuse the goddess in question (whom he regards as the Pythagorean Hestia = the
Platonic Ananke) with the gate-opening Dike of Parmenides' prologue. But in Hermes
Trismeg. ap. Stob. eel. r. 49. 44 p. 393, 18 Dike is sister of Ananke ; and F. M. Cornford
in his very notable book From Religion to Philosophy London 1912 p. 214 ff. argues that the
goddess throned in the centre is not only Moira, Lachesis, Ananke, and Dike, but Aphrodite
to boot. If so, Plout. amat. 13 was not far wrong, when he made Aphrodite the subject of
fxr/TLaaTo. Certainly the common Greek tradition, which stretches back to Sappho/ra^. 132
Bergk4 ap. schol. Theokr. 13. 1 ('ArppooiTrfs Kai Ovpavov, cp. Paus. 9. 27. 3. C. J.
Blomfield cj. Try;. Wilamowitz cj. 'AtppodLT-qs <rj Trjs>), regarded Eros as the son of
Aphrodite. His father is Zeus in Eur. Hipp. 534"Epwj, 6 A(6s irals (cp. Ciris 133 ff. sed
malus ille puer, quern nec sua flectere mater | iratum potuit, quern nec pater atque avus
idem | Iuppiter, etc.). But the genealogy of Eros was notoriously a bone of contention :
see Gruppe Gr. Myth. Pel. p. 1071 11. 1, O. Waser in Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc. vi.
488 f.

1 Max. Tyr. diss. 10. 4 Diibner dXXd Kai tov 2.vpLov tt\v woLtjffiv o-k6tt€l, tov Zijva Kai
tt]v Xdovirjv Kai tov ev tovtols "Epwra, k.t.X. Supra i. 27 n. 5.

2 Pherekyd. frag. 3 Diels ap. Prokl. in Plat. Pirn. ii. 54, 28 ff. Diehl Kai 6 &epeKv5r/s
£\eyev ei's "Epwra /j.eTaj3ej3Xr}ffdaL tov Ala fi^Wovra Sr/fiLovpyelv, otl St) tov KOfffxov £k tGjv
evavTLCOv avvLffTas et's dfJ-oXoyiav Kai (pLXiav fjyaye Kai TauTOTTjTa wdffLV evecnreipe Kai evLCULv
Trjv 5t' oXwf SLrjKovffav. See R. Zimmermann in the Zeitschrift fiir Philosophie undphilo-
sophische Kritik 1854 xxiy- 177, O. Kern De Orphei Epimeniolis Pher-ecydis theogoniis
quaestiones critieae Berolini 1888 p. 95 f., D. Speliotopoulos ilepi $epeKv8ov tov 1,vplov Kai
Tjjs Qeoyovias avTov Athens 1890 p. 47 n. 15.

3 G. F. Schoemann ' De Cupidine cosmogonico' (Gryphiswaldiae 1852) in his
Opuseula Aeademica Berolini 1857 ii. 60—92.

4 See Append. G.

5 "Epw? TroXvTepirrjS- ...ev fjeydXip Zrfvos.. .ffdifxaTL (Orph.f-ag. 123 Abel cited Append. G).

6 Orph. h. triet. 52. 1, 6, 10 Ba/cxeC, | ...6eu>v ivaTep rjde Kai vie, [ ..."Epws.

7 Sttpra pp. 277, 287 f., 292 ff.