Large walled settlement on Oxa hill. Cf.
Spratt, I, 126. Mariani, Mon. Ant., VI,
249. Evans, Diary, 17/4/94. Sherds found
by the writer, 1935.
Extensive site, probably the ancient Istron.
Cf. B.S.A., XXXIII, 95. Hall, Vrokastro,
Grave stela in the Candia Museum. Cata-
Inscription on the S. face. Hall, Trans. Penn.
Univ., I, 15. Cf. Halbherr, Antiquary,
1893, 13. (" Vrionisi ") and Chapoutier,
B.C.H., LIX, 376.
VI. THE ROMAN PERIOD
(Map 23, cf. Map 22 also)
With its absorption into the Roman Empire, brutally as it
Was conquered 1 and at first repressed, Crete entered a period
°f prosperity such as it had not known since the palmy days of
L.M.i. Sites such as Pharmakokephalo, Priniatikos Pyrgos,
Agia Photia, Pakhyammos, Mokhlos, and Tourloti are re-
settled for the first time since the Bronze Age. The popula-
tion, if not the number of villages in the island, must have
exceeded that of the present century.
Most of the harbours available at that date (see above,
P- 3) are the site of at least warehouses, and such towns as
Syia, Diktynnaia, and Priansos show traces of elaborate aque-
ducts which brought down the water to these dry, sandy
The absence of roads of certain Roman date is remarkable ;
but I should be very willing to believe that many of the paved
kalderims ', which are loosely called Venetian or Turkish
roads, are really relics of the Roman occupation, while such
sites as that on Katharos, Stou Vasilikou near Agios Georgios,
at Kalamafka and Malla imply that the already existing Minoan
routes into Lasithi were in regular use. The eastern half of the
plain of Lasithi itself is divided up by deep cuttings into
rectangular patches of ground like a chessboard. These areas
are regular and usually about I mile each way. The inhabit-
ants say that these Ah'iaig, or cuttings, are Venetian, but in
Venetian times the plain was ' out of bounds ' on pain of death.
1 The identification by Spratt (II, 91 f.) of the very breach by which
Metellus entered Eleutherna is unfortunately impossible, since Byzan-
tine sherds occur throughout the walls of the tower in which the
present breach exists.