antient amphorae, are placed in small cylindrical stands. They are painted in different colours, to denote the materials of
which they were formed; red for earthenware, green for bronze, and yellow for gold. These vessels may be supposed to have
contained wines and other liquors. To the right of them are the haunch of a deer, coloured red; a goose, coloured yellow;
a cake of bread, two bunches of grapes, and a basket of yellow figs.
THE SOUTHERN STONE PYRAMID.
Plate XV. Figs. 7 and 8, are hieroglyphics traced upon the sides of the northern entrance of the Southern Stone Pyramid
at Dashoor; but they do not appear to have a reference to the original design of the building.
The inscription on the eastern wall, Fig. 7, seems to have been as follows: — S 0 *\f
bearer of the feather standard of the god Phtak, Perithtah justified, son of Penamoun justified''' It is to be observed that the
feather sometimes represents the feather standard, and that the above-mentioned title does not seem to have been used before the
eighteenth dynasty, and then to have belonged to the officers of various kings, and also to the priests of Phtah, and of other
gods.* The pat sceptre is usually put before the sceptre in the form of a feather, or of a fan; and although it sometimes
phonetically replaces the bird, as 4 or II, yet, that it is also frequently used as the determinative of the word cyopn, and
apparently signifies "to lead" or "to precede"\
The meaning of the inscription upon the western wall, Fig. 8, is not so easily determined, on account of its imperfect
state, and of its laconic style. It may, however, be remarked, that, if the first four characters are correctly copied, they express
" in all her tribunals;" but that, if the third character, instead of representing the basket, neb, or nibi, " all" is the symbol
which may be found in Champ. " Gram. Egypt." p. 45, No. 219, it will, in conjunction with the fourth and fifth, represent
the word £>eju.a, "to sit." The next symbol is a stream of water poured out from a vase upon a man's leg, and expresses o-*a.&,
"pure" It is followed by three undulating lines, a scarabseus, and the figure of a man sitting. Although the two lines are
not connected, they seem to have been executed at the same time, and, from analogy, not to be more antient than the twenty-
sixth dynasty; and if the line contains the unexplained titles used during the era of the Psammetichi and Ptolemies, it should
precede Fig. 7.J
The Pyramids in Ethiopia appear to be less antient than those of Gizeh, and many of the smaller were, probably, of a
comparatively recent date, and were erected in imitation of the original buildings. These imperfect inscriptions cannot, however,
be considered as a positive proof of the age of the edifice.
PYRAMIDS OF LISHT.
PLATE XVII. Figs. 1-4.
They are usually distinguished by this name by the Arabs, but they are also called the Pyramids of Metanyeh, or of Bemha.
Metanyeh is about two miles and a half to the eastward; but Bemha, although still farther off to the north-eastward, occupies an
antient site, and has, therefore, of the two, perhaps a better claim to the Pyramids. Both these monuments are entirely ruined.
The space between them (rather more than a mile) contains excavated tombs and mummy-pits, most probably belonging to the
antient cemetery of Peme, or Pemeau; but neither sculpture nor hieroglyphics are to be observed near them.
Fig. 2 is a section of the Northern Pyramid. It is situated near a canal (called indifferently by the Arabs, Bahr Youseff,
El Bainhee, or El Menhee), and it is placed upon an elevation of about 60 feet above the plain. Many of the blocks have
been taken away to build a bridge at Tahme, and their removal has disclosed its construction, which is very irregular, and
consists of differently sized stones, put together with Nile earth instead of mortar, and arranged in walls of unequal thickness,
so as to form steps or degrees (as in the Great Pyramid of Saccara); and over the whole a Pyramid appears to have been
formed with bricks, and then covered with a stone casing.
Present Base, about
Fig. 3 is a section of the Southern Pyramid. From having been built with a soft limestone, it has crumbled away until it
has the appearance of a round hillock; and, in fact, many of the adjacent desert hills are much more pyramidal. It is,
however, more advantageously placed, is larger, and has been constructed with larger masses of stone, and apparently with more
care, than the Northern Pyramid.
Fig. 4 is a view of these Pyramids taken from the Bahr Youseff.
PYRAMID OF MEYDOOM.
PLATE XVII. Figs. 5, 6, and 7.
This monument is near the limits of the cultivated ground, and about two miles to the north-westward of the village, from
which it takes its name.
Fig. 7 shews its present appearance, which is peculiarly striking when seen from the river.
It is called the "False Pyramid," because the base is supposed to have been formed out of a knoll of rock, and it certainly
has that appearance. To ascertain the fact two excavations were made, but the rock was not discovered. The supposition,
however, may be well founded, and the exterior only may consist of masonry, as a large tomb, near the north-eastern angle, is
evidently constructed in that manner.
The base, about 350 feet square, is much encumbered with rubbish, and is at present of an irregular form. The superstructure
is in three degrees, each having the form of a truncated Pyramid, with an angle of 74° 10'. The lower degree has a base
of 199 feet, and is 69 feet 6 inches in height; the second, a base of about 127 feet, and is 32 feet 6 inches in height; the third,
* Pedestal, British Museum, No. 42.
f Pap. Sallier, No. £, passim.
% A figure dancing sometimes occurs in titles upon Stele, in the United Service Museum.