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Rahotep beloved of Asar-Khentamenti of Abydos.
Below, a scene of three men offering to Osiris. Below,
two lines of an adoration to Osiris by Ptahseankh, etc.
At one side of the tablet a man, overseer of the
temple ; at the other side a woman, with the title
citizeness, ankht en nut. It is of very rough work and
in bad condition. Some other inscription must have
been known to Lepsius, as he gives the throne-name in
the Konigsbuch. The stele from Koptos however
gives, for the first time, the Hor name, the double
diadem name, and the Hor-nub name.

Some columns found displaced in the Ptolemaic
rearrangement, are probably of the Middle Kingdom.
Columns and circular bases are both cut in dark
brown sandstone; the octagonal columns are 14-2
inches across, one circular base is 24 inches across,
and another circular base is 41 inches across, and 5^
inches high.



23. We now turn to the rebuilding of the temple
by Tahutmes III (see plan, Pl. I). Nothing is known
about the surroundings of the temple before Ptolemaic
times ; so our present view is restricted to the block
of foundations next around the words " Temple of
Tahutmes." These foundations are all of sandstone.
On the west front are massive piles of blocks about
eight feet high, rough in outline, and evidently
hidden originally. These are doubtless the founda-
tions of columns or pillars. On the north side is some
continuous wall base. And on the south-east a
fragment of similar foundations remains, which is of
the same age, not only by its work but by the deposit
placed with it.

The foundation deposits serve to mark out this
building. They are here marked F. D., and numbered
1 to 7. All of these deposits (not those in the two
northcorners of the outer building) are alike in material,
and nearly all bear the name of Tahutmes III. They
were early in his reign, as a scarab of Hatshepsut
occurred in No. 3. One deposit (5) is in the axis
under the entrance on the west. Four separate
deposits form a group in the axis at the east end ;
and as the door jamb of the Xllth dynasty shews
that in that time an eastern door existed, the plan
was probably alike under the XVIIIth dynasty. In

the middle of the south side another deposit (6)
was found ; and from the analogy of deposits of the
next dynasty at Thebes, this probably shews where a
cross wall divided the temple. And the last deposit
(7) was under the south-east corner. No trace of
other deposits could be found in parallel positions.

The area of the temple thus indicated is about
twice as wide, and rather longer than, the temple of
Tahutmes III at Medinet Habu ; and almost the size
of the sanctuary-end of the temple of Amenhotep III
at Luxor, beyond the open courts. The spacing of
the foundations at the west front seems rather extreme
for columns, about 16 feet centre to centre ; but such
span is used in the XVIIIth dynasty at Luxor, though
it is a little more than the spans in the court there.
The position suggested for a cross wall by desposit 6,
would show that the shrine was not in the centre ;
and from plans of other temples of this age it was
probably in the front half, and chambers in the back
half. Of course it must be remembered that all
temples of this age were processional in theory, being
resting-places for the sacred bark, with a clear way in
and out at both ends ; and hence from the group of
deposits at the east end, it is probable that there was
an external door there. The well by these deposits
goes down below the present water-level; and though
I made great efforts to reach the bottom, the water
rose too fast to bale it out. It probably has no
connection with the temple, but is one of the old wells
of the primitive settlement before any temple was
built, as we found several other such wells in the area.

The external appearance of the temple was probably
much like that of Tahutmes at Medinet Habu. In
the ruins of the Coptic Church, west of the temple,
are four standing pillars, and one fallen, which have
certainly come from this temple, as they bear scenes
of Tahutmes III. They are of red granite, plain
below and figured above, exactly like the sculptures
of the pillars of Tahutmes at Medinet Habu. They
vary somewhat in size, some being 32 X 34 inches,
others 32 X 37 inches. We may then figure to our-
selves a portico of square red granite pillars along the
front, and a building of sandstone behind, containing
a shrine for the sacred bark, and a group of chambers
for the temple property behind that, divided by the
central passage which opened out at the back of the
temple, eastward.

24. Turning now to the foundation deposits. These
were all placed in circular pits cut in the basal clay.
Plans are here given (Pl. XVI) of Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 7.
Beside these, No. 4 was only a shallow hole without