Butler, Howard Crosby ; Princeton University [Editor]
Syria: publications of the Princeton University Archaeological Expeditions to Syria in 1904 - 5 and 1909 (Div. 2, Sect. A ; 7) — 1919

Page: 409
DOI Page: Citation link: 
https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/syria_div2_sectA_7/0013
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I23. BREKEH.

This is one of the southernmost villages of the Ledja. It is not a large settlement,
and most of its ancient buildings have been destroyed, either by the Moslems by whom
a small mosque was erected here in the middle ages, or by the Druses who now inhabit
the place. There are a few Greek inscriptions to be seen in different quarters of
the village, not one of them in situ, as it appears. Only one ancient building is to be
distinguished now among the crude modern ones, although many of the present hab-
itations are probably, in part at least, ancient; this is a small temple in the northeastern
part of the village. It is now abandoned, though it appears to have been converted
into a mosque at some distant date, when its front wall which had fallen was roughly
rebuilt, and a crude niche was erected against its south wall. The podium of the temple,
although partly buried, is all in place, with its steps in front and the sloping side walls
which bounded them on either side. The cella (Ill. 352) measures about 8.80 m. by
9.90 m. outside; there are four pilasters on either side, three in the rear, and four in
the front, or east, wall, where the two which flank the broad doorway are narrower
than those at the ends. The porch is very narrow, being only 2.30 m. deep, while the
cap of the podium has a broad projection of 30 cm. beyond the bases of the pilasters.
The little building was constructed with great care and skill. It is a complete ruin,
though its rear wall is preserved to the top of the pilaster-caps, and its side walls vary
in height from the same level at the rear to three or four metres at their east ends;
while the front wall preserves only the lower courses of the pilasters and of the door
jambs. Constant rains during our stay at Brfekeh prevented the taking of successful
photographs. The interior of the cella shows highly finished walls, quite plain except
at the west end where the concha of a shallow niche, 1.50 m. wide, has been torn out,
leaving only the lower courses of two coupled pilasters on either side.
There are many fragments of architectural details lying inside and outside of the
temple, such as the bases, shafts, and capitals of columns of one larger and two smaller
orders, sections of the cornice both straight and curved, voussoirs of a large arch, and
all the parts of two niches which flanked the doorway. With the aid of these frag-
ments the restoration of the temple is a simple task. None of the columns of the
porch is in situ ·, but it is plain that there were four, and that the middle space was
arcuated. Their places may be accurately determined by placing their bases upon the
edge of the porch, one opposite each of the pilasters (Ill. 352). The order used was
the Ionic (Pl. XXIX), and the standing pilasters give the height of the columns. The
columns of the porch were elevated upon sub-plinths with panelled sides, the bases are
of the Attic type, and the shafts are unfluted. One of the angle-capitals is shown in
a drawing to scale in Ill. 352, the other capitals were of the common type. The
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