Egypt Exploration Fund   [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1897-1898

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Archaeology, Hieroglyphic Studies, Etc.


Borchardt (A. Z. sxxv. 105) quotes a very clear instance of a flint
knife being sharpened in an Old Kingdom scene of sacrifice in the Gizeh
Museum. The chips fall in showers from the flint under the action of a
sharpener similar to those figured at Beni Hasan.

Max Muller (Studien z. Vorderas. Gesch. 27) writes on the history of
metals in Western Asia and in Egypt.

Bissixg (L'AnthrojJologie, ix. 240 et seqq.) has printed the first part of
an important article on the origins of Egypt, reviewing what has been
published during the last three or four years. He deplores the lack of
any real record of the work at Abydos, finds many errors of fact in
De Morgan's fine volumes, and points out some errors of arrangement in
Nagada and Ballas, the only trustworthy publication of material for the
study of the subject. He proceeds to determine to some extent the
succession of styles in the modes of burial, in tomb structure, and in the
potter\r, contending that none of these afford proof of the presence of
two races, the one indigenous and the other coming from the East. As
to pottery, the use of the potter's wheel is occasionally observable on all
the types except the very earliest. One of the latest styles is largely
represented in the tomb of Meues.

TortB (L'Ant/irojwlogie, ix. 32) suggests that the " ships" painted on
the early pottery' really represent earthworks. But his argument is over-
thrown by an instance which he quotes (Nagada, lxvii. 14) as showing
" rudders " at each end; the rudder, which is indeed at one end, is quite
different from the tow-rope, or perhaps anchor, at the other, and rudder
and tow-rope are decisive signs of a boat or ship.

Schvoeinfurth (Verhand. d. Berlin Anthropol. Gesells., 20 March, 1597)
discusses the mode of embalmment of the head and extraction of the
brain; the " prehistoric " skulls show no openings for these operations.
Ib., 16 Oct., this paper was followed by an analysis of the contents of
a prehistoric skull by Saxkoavski. It appeared to contain resin, but the
analysis gave no positive result to show that the supposed resin was
not altered brain matter. In the same number Schweinfurth discusses
the ornament of the prehistoric Egyptians. For the origin of the
hieroglyjDhic "plant of the South," ho suggests the Aloe Abyssinica, and
he notes that the Elephant appears to be harnessed (!) in the prehistoric
drawings ; but it may be doubted if this appearance is not due simply to
a peculiarity of early drawing.

Virchow (ib.) gives the results of his examination of the hair of these
early people, which is usually very pale in colour. Careful analysis of
several examples revealed that the colour is not original, but is due to
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