Papers of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens — 1.1882-1883

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THE OLYMPIEION AT ATHENS.

193

to Naxos, and the contest with the Mytileneans for the possession of
Sigeion on the Hellespont. These are of importance here, because
they render it probable that the domestic improvements, which we
hear of in connection with his achievements, belong to the latter
part of his reign. Such are the cutting of new streets in Athens ;
the renewal of the Panathenaic festival on a grander scale; the
patronage of art and letters, which brought so many distinguished
men to his court; and, lastly, his design to perpetuate the memory
of his reign by monumental works of architecture. Among these
are mentioned a temple of Apollo, the gymnasium of the Academy,
and, lastly, the temple of Zeus Olympios, which was to be his
grandest work. For the reasons assigned, it is not probable that the
work was begun before 535 B.C., at the earliest; and it certainly could
not have been continued after the expulsion of his son Hippias in
510 B.C., for we are informed by Vitruvius that the undertaking was
interrupted by the political disorders of that time.* Probably the
giant work was looked upon even then as a monument of tyranny,
and shared a part of the odium that was bestowed on the expelled
tyrant. Aristotle, speaking nearly two centuries afterwards, says

(V. Il): Kai to irivrjTos iroitiv row? ap^o/mevov; TvpawtKov, oVcos r) re
cj>v\a.Kr] rpecfirjTaL Kal Trpo? tw ko.8 rjpepav oVres dcr^oXoL £)o~lv i-mfiov-
Xeve.LV Trapd8eiyp,a oe tovtov al re TTLipa/xiSes at vrepl AlyviTTOV, Kal ra
ava9r}p.a.Ta Kvij/eXiSwv, Kal tov OXvparLov ?/ OLKo86/irjo-l<; irro twv Iletcri-
(TTpaTLOoiv, Kal rwv irepl %dp,ov epya IIoXvKpareta • iravra yap raCra
Swarat Tairbv, dcr^oXtai/ Kal Treviav twv dp^ofievaiv. He thus makes
the building of this temple characteristic of the most odious features
of tyranny. To execute his plan, Peisistratos engaged four architects,
Antistates, Kallaeschros, Antimachides, and Porinos.f

In connection with the work of Peisistratos and his sons, three
questions present themselves for consideration. First, what was the
size of the temple as begun by his architects ? second, in what style
of architecture was it planned? and third, how far did the building
advance at this period?

* Vitruv., VII. praef. 15: Post mortem autem eius propter interpellationem
reipublicae incepta reliquerunt.

f Vitruv., VII. praef. 17. Pormos is found as a variant in the Mss. Callaes-
chros also is not quite certain. These are merely names to us, for they are no-
where mentioned except in this passage.
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