Glasgow Archaeological Society [Hrsg.]
The Antonine Wall report: being an account of excavations, etc., made under the direction of the Glasgow Archæological Society during 1890 - 93 — Glasgow, 1899

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the bottom of the cutting made, and—starting about midway
between these two, but ultimately coinciding with the latter—
the straight dark line in question. Its distance below the
surface of the mound is, near the centre, about 5 feet 3 inches.
This diminishes at points further north in the mound to 4 feet
6 inches, 3 feet 6 inches, 2 feet 9 inches, and 1 foot 8 inches.
At the last point, 62 feet 6 inches from the large stone on
the counterscarp, the end of the dip of the mound is nearly
reached where the sloping descent dies away in the ordinary
level. The thickness of this line is seldom over half an inch,
but there are thicker lenticular patches. Near the counterscarp,
it is of a plum colour or not very deep black, which, after con-
tinuing for several feet, tails off' into a rather thinner and fainter
line, reddish in tint. Samples taken at various points yielded
the following percentages of vegetable matter:—

No. Percentage. No. Percentage.

1. 3-98 4. 4-25

2. 3-47 5. 478

3. 275 , .

There is not any very marked difference between the soils
above and below this line. Below, it is of a reddish sandy
character, and of a little deeper tint than prevails above. Above,
it is not so homogeneous, and contains a good many stones.
As noted at one point near the centre of the section, there is,
resting upon the dark line, a stratum of the reddish sand 20
inches deep; above that, for about 27 inches, the sand becomes
mixed and rather clayey, and the reddish tint dies out; above
that again, in the space between the clayey sand and the surface,
there are 22 inches of boulder-clay mixed with coal—small pieces,
as if a thin seam had been pierced in cutting the ditch. This
mixed dark boulder-clay, extending in a band along the surface
for 40 feet, is the same in appearance as the stratum reached
when the bottom of the ditch was cleared. All through this
north mound there are (with the exception of two very large
stones of freestone, one on the level of the dark line, as men-
tioned already, and another one for the most part below the
line) not many large stones; but there are a great many 6, 8,

and 10 inches and upwards in length. The grassy surface of
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