Egypt Exploration Fund [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1901-1902

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Egypt Exploration Fund.

which may well be the ancient name of Khamsin, though the fact that the
crocodiles of Kerkeosiris were carried for burial to Tebtunis shows that
this is by no means a necessary inference. A considerable quantity of
papyrus cartonnage was also obtained here from some large pits in the
Ptolemaic cemetery, all of which had been plundered in ancient times, but
in some cases, fortunately, without the usual damage to the mummies.

Early in March another move was made to Illahun, where, we heard,
some crocodile tombs had been opened by natives during the previous
summer. This cemetery, which had hitherto escaped notice, was situated
in low ground a short distance to the north of the pyramid, and contained
crocodile mummies of the late Ptolemaic and early Eoman periods. In a
few of the latter kind inside the cloth wrappings was a thin layer of
papyrus, but it had mostly been used as a background for paint and was
very fragile and of little practical value; crocodiles of the earlier type
produced no papyri. Other antiquities were, as usual, infrequent; in one
tomb however were found some pretty fragments of welded glass with
inlaid patterns and a number of sticks on which were marked measure-
ments of crocodiles—apparently memoranda for the mummifier or grave-
digger. We next turned our attention to the Ptolemaic cemetery, which
had been extensively dug on behalf of the Museum in 1900. The tombs
fell into two divisions, a later group on the south slopes of the hill on
which was built the temple of Kahfm, and an earlier one on an adjacent
rise to the west. In the former cartonnage was fairly frequent, but in all
cases had been ruined by damp ; from the latter however we succeeded in
extracting a number of papyrus mummies, though here too the proximity
of the cultivation had had in many cases an injurious effect upon their
state of preservation.

During these excavations in the Fayfim we purchased a large amount
of early Ptolemaic papyrus cartonnage which had recently been found at a
site in the Nile valley. With some difficulty we ascertained this to be
Hibeh, on the east bank opposite' Feshn, and on concluding our work at
Illahun we obtained leave to proceed to Hibeh immediately. That ancient
town, familiar to travellers on the Nile on account of its massive walls-
built under the XXIInd Dynasty, and picturesque temple overgrown by
palms, has a very extensive cemetery dating from the New Empire to-
Eoman times. The Pharaonic tombs have for the most part been dug out,,
but those of the Graeco-Eoman period, situated outside the town wall on
the north, had not been systematically explored. The early Ptolemaic
mummies were generally in plain limestone or painted wooden sarcophagi,
which were either placed in chambers rudely hollowed out in the sides of
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