Egypt Exploration Fund [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1901-1902

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Progress of Egyptology.

has recorded some other results of his work in an article contributed
to Man for May, 1902 :—

Excavations at Bet Khallae and Eeqaqnah in Upper Egypt.

"Last season's expedition was arranged by Mr. Hilton Price, the funds
being subscribed at his invitation by Mr. W. MacGregor, Mr. Martyn
Kennard, Mr. E. E-rocklebank, and Mr. Arthur J. Evans (for the
Ashniolean Museum). Its object was to look for early tombs in the
neighbourhood of the Eoyal Tombs of the Illrd Dynasty, found at Bet
Ehallaf by the Eesearch Account in the previous year. Work was done
at several places intervening between the small villages that lie between
Bet Khallaf and Eeqaqnah; but a necropolis which was found to the
north of the latter town proved of great immediate interest. It consisted
of two portions, the one containing several remarkable tombs of the Illrd
Dynasty type associated with Neter-khet (chiefly characterized by the
descending stairway protected by portcullis stones), the other being for
the most part an undisturbed burying place of the Illrd and IVth
Dynasties, with some of the large panelled mastabas of the Old Kingdom.

" Erom the former were gathered some further links between the earliest
Dynasties. The ' stairway tombs,' for example, are now presented in a
series, both architectural and chronological, linking the types found by
Mr. Eandall-Maclver at El Amrah, by Prof. Petrie at Abydos, and by
Mr. Quibell at El Kab, not only with the great tombs of Bet Khallaf (which
are described in a memoir of the Egyptian Eesearch Account now being
published), but also with the well-known type of mastaba of the Old King-
dom, like those described by Prof. Petrie in Dendereh, the development of
which the present site illustrates in some interesting examples. The use
of the arch, again, is found to be perfectly understood, one or two cases
showing a complete span of well-shaped voussoirs, formed as a rule from
the ordinary brick by the addition of a shaping piece baked to it, more
rarely by chipping the brick to the required form. Some interesting-
objects of stone, including a mace-head and some vases of unusual forms,
were found in the excavation.

"In the smaller tombs of the Illrd Dynasty such as were found in the
other portion of the site, the outer mastaba was an enclosing wall merely.
Within was a grave at no great depth covered with a roof built like an
untrimmed false arch. Similar dated tombs have been observed at El
Amrah, at El Kab, and at Naga-Der ; their range seems to have been the
first three dynasties. The burial had only one permanent feature : its
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