Egypt Exploration Fund [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1901-1902

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Archaeology, Hieroglyphic Studies, Etc.


head was always to the north. But the face might be east or west, the
position partly or fully contracted, or almost extended.

"In the early tombs of the IVth Dynasty the whole mastaba was solid,
save for the shaft of a square pit descending in the centre. This was
found commonly three to five metres deep, with a small recess on the south
side at the bottom. The burial was generally fully contracted, head north,
face east, or head west and face north, and was accompanied by a few pots.
In one case a recess was in the north and contained a deposit of stone
vases and a table ; but in this instance the burial—partly contracted—lay
in the pit itself.

" The slightly later series of the IVth Dynasty also differed somewhat
in detail; the retaining wall enclosed a larger area, and some space filled
with rubbish intervened between it and the walls of the shaft. Some of
the pits, too, were much deeper, reaching so far as seven, eight, and even
nine metres.

"There is another class of burial of some interest; that which is covered
by a large pottery bowl or majur. Some instances observed at El Kab
by Mr. Quibell were attributable to the Vth Dynasty. In this site the
burial is always fully contracted with head generally north-east. Several
observations help to limit the use of this form. Two tombs (with panelled
mastaba walls) were found built between tombs of the Illrd and early
IVth Dynasty; and another case was observed in the substratum of a
large mastaba probably not later than the Vth Dynasty. It thus seems
that these majur burials may here be ascribed to the IVth and Vth

"Among the inscribed objects of the earliest Dynasties were found an
alabaster bowl, with graffito on inside of Snefru (stn Liti snefru) ; a stele
IHrd-IVth Dynasties, with figure and hieroglyphs in relief; a small glazed
cylinder seal of Khafra neteno merj a wooden shrine or false door of the
IVth Dynasty, with figure clad in skin ou the panel, and inscribed on the
jambs (two on each side) with hieroglyphs in relief of the royal scribe
Skcpses, interesting for the spelling of his title. There were found also
some small globular pieces of hard clay, with incised inscription, which is
not yet read : only one sign is definitely legible, the crocodile; the signs
may be pictographic and not necessarily hieroglyphic. Date, possibly Vth
Dynasty (R. 50). There are besides a stela of the Vth Dynasty, some later
stelae, one very fine of the Middle Kingdom; also a pyramidion, and a
small obelisk, all inscribed.

" The report of these excavations, containing a summary of present
archaeological information with regard to the Illrd Dynasty, will be
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