Ars: časopis Ústavu Dejín Umenia Slovenskej Akadémie Vied — 1984

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https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/ars1984/0038
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CTH. 14 3 3Τ0Γ0 CJieAyeT MeTOAOAOrHqeCKHH ΠΛΙ0ρ3ΛΗ3Μ.
4. Ona He orpepaeT ncTopn<ieci<oe HCCAeAOBaHHe ot acTe-
THiecKoro h, BCAepcTBne βτογο, nosHaBaTeAbHyio <j>yHKUHio
HccjieAOBaTCjM ot (jíyHKAHH nponaraHAHCTCKoři. 5. TeopnH
Η ΜεΤΟΛΟΛΟΓΗΗ HCTOpHH HCKyCCTBa nOHHMaiOTCSI He KaK
BHeUIHHe ΠΟ OTHOUleHHK) K CaMOH HCTOpnOrpacjiHH, HO,
c ppyroft CTOpoHM, hx nosTOMy ne cjieAyeT OTBepraTb KaK
HeoßocHOBaHHbie. ScTeTHHecKaa opeHKa h TeopeTnqecKoe
KOHCTpyiipoBaHHe cquraioTcsi HenocpeACTBenno npncyTCTBy-
ΙΟΙΡΙΙΜΗ B KOHKpeTHOM HCTOpHqeCKOM HCCAeAOBaHHH, ΠΟ-
CKOAbKy He BO3HHKaeT COMHeHHH B CymeCTBOBaHHH 33ΚΟΗΟ-
MepnocTeií b jkhshh oömecTBa η b ero HCTopHH. Ποβτομ>'
Ηβτ HeOÖXOAHMOCTH OKOAbHblM HyTeM MATH K <j)aKTy,
Ητο KajKpoe κοΗκρετκοε HCCJieAoaaHHe ημπληρητηο copep-
jkht Kai< scTeTHHecKHe κρκτερΗΗ, TaK h TeopempecKyio
KOHn.enU.HIO.
PoAb KaTa.nH3aTopa b CTpeMAeHHH κ CHHTe3HpoBaHHio
cbirpaAa MapKCHCTCKasi 6a3a coBercKofl κοτορκΗ pcKyccTB.
Üna npeACTaßjiaeT KOUKpeTiiyio c|)opwy TeopiiH, opramiqecKH
npHcymefi KOHicpeTHOMy HCTopnqecKOMy HCCAepoBaHHio.
TenpeHpHii κ KOMnAeKCHOMy, oöoßipaioipeMy ποηημηηηιο
copepjKapacb eine b pyccKOfi ΗοτορκοΓρβφΗΗ ucKyccTBa.
OpHaKO OHa HOCHJia HCKAIOPHTeAbHO KyjIbTypHO-HCTOpmeC-
khh xapaKTep. B Heft He yqHTbiBaAacb οπερΗφηΡΗΟοτρ
ucKyccTBa, a TaKJKe ero copnaAbHbie κορκΗ, copHapbHa.q
i|iyHKij,noHaAbHOCTb οπερΗφηΡΗΟοτκ ucKyccTBa, ee CKpenjieH-
HOCTb C OßmeCTBeHHO-HCTOpHHeCKHM nponeCCOM. MapKCH3M
BHeC B COBeTCKyiO HCTOpilIO HCKyCCTBa BO3MOJKHOCTb opra-
HHHeCKOrO eAHHCTBa TeOpHH H npaKTHKH, „HMMaileHTHOFO“
h „TpaHcneHAeHTHoro“ ποηημηηηη HCKyCCTBa. KyAbTypno-
-HCTOpH'ieCKasi (HpeaAHCTitqecKaii) TpancpeHAenTHocTb CMe-
HHJiacb orpaHHHecKH npncymeft copnoAorHqecKoft cjiyHKiiHO-
Ha.lbHOCTblO. FIoCAeAHHft CAOft CHHTe3HpyiOipHX yCHAHft
coBeTCKoft HCTopHH HCKyCCTBa osHanaeT, qro ona ne toapko
CHHTe3»ipyeT „HMManeHTnoe“ h „TpancpeHpeHTHoe“ noHHMa-
Hne HCKyCCTBa, ho caMy „TpancpeHpeHTHocTb“ noHHMaer
KaK CHIIT63 Ky.nbTypHO-HCTOpHHeCKOrO H COlIHOAOraqeCKOrO
cjiaKTopa. CaM copHOAOrnqecKHft φ3κτορ b MapKCH3Me no-
HHMaeTCH CHHTeTH'iecKH, KaK pnaAeKTHHecKoe h pHHaMHqec-
Koe eAHHCTßo copiiaAbnoft cTpyKTypu η copHaAbHbix CTpeM-
AeHHH, OÖmeCTBeHHOH AeHCTBHTeAbHOCTH H COpHaAbHOÜ,
KAaCCOBO ΑΗφφερεΗΗΗρΟΒΗΗΗΟΗ ΗΑβΟΛΟΓΗΗ.
B KOHKpeTHbix paöoTax hctophkob ncicyccTBa βτοτ KyAb-
Ty pOAOrO-COHHOAOrHleCKHft φβκτορ 00'beAHHHeTCH co cne-
Η,πφΗΗβΟΚΗ XyAOJKeCTBeHHbLM, OCTeTHPeCKHM φΗΚΤΟρΟΜ H
φβΚΤΟρΟΜ φθρΜΜ na OCHOBe HOHHMäHHil HCKyCCTBa KaK
OTpaJKeHHH. Hckvcctbo noHHMaeTCH KaK CAOJKiibift opraHH3M,
KOTOpbift CBOeft cnepiH|)H'iHOCTbio yqacTByeT b oöipecTBeHHoft
jkhshh. Oho ne τολβκο ee OTpaJKaeT, ho — b AHapeKTHqec-
KOM CMbiCAe — HMeHHO nyreM OTpaTKeHHH yqacTByeT b ee
ΟφορΜΛεΗΗΗ, φθρΜΗρθΒ3ΗΗΗ. OßbeAHHeHHe CnepipJlHKH
3ΤΟΗ φyHK^HH C ee COpiiaAbHOH 3HaqHMOCTbIO BO3MOJKHO
ÖAaroAapH pHaAeKTHqecKOMy ποηημθηηιο HCKyCCTBa KaK
BbipaiKeilHH COnnaAbHblX CTpeMAennft, C OAHOH CTOpOHbI,
H KaK OTpaiKeHHil COpnaAbHOft 'AeftCTBHTeAbHOCTH, C Apyroft.
K nOHHMaeMOft ΤΒΚΗΜ 0Öpa30M COpHOAOrHH HCTOpHH HCKyC-
CTBa — Korpa coppaAbHO-HCToppqecKaii OTpajKaioipaii cppa

η Bbipa3HTeAbHaii cpocoßnocTb HCKyCCTBa npoHBAAeTcq KaK
BbipaHcenne AHTepaTypno ΗεοφορΝ^ΛΗροΒΒΗΗΗΧ (neAHCKyp-
CHBHblx) CTpeMAeHHH H H^iieaAOB KAaCCOB — npHCOeAHHHeT-
cq cAeAyioipHH Ba>KHbifi μομβητ: noHHMaHHe HCTopHH KaK
3aKOHOMepHoro npopecca. HcKyccTBO KaK οπερΗφηρεοκρίί
KOMnoneHT HCTopnqecKoro npopecca siBAjieTCH ne toabko
Cyß'beKTHBHblM HHCTpyMeHTOM OrpaHHqeHHblX HHTepeCOB, HO
KOHCTHTyHpoBaHneM BHeßpeMeHHbix KaqecTB: oho ίίΒΑίιβτκι
BonAOipeHHeM oóipeqeAOBeqecKHx pennocTeft p 3HaHHft,
CO3AaHHbIX H 3aBOeßaHHbtX B CTpeMAeHHH K AOCTHJKeHHIO
KOHKpeTHbix COpHaAbHO-HCTOppqeCKHX HAeaAOB. M nOBTOMy
BHyrpeHHIOIO CHHTeTHqHOCTb HCKyCCTBa MOJKHO nO3HaBaTb
HenocpeACTBeHHo H3 nero, H3 ero οπερηφΗκη, ne b nocAep-
moio oqepepb H3 „3Kcnp8CCHH ero φορΜ“.
B CTpeMAeHHiix coBeTCKoro HCToppqecKoro ncKyccTBO3Ha-
HH5I B ΠΟΟΛερΗεε BpeMH MOJKHO pa3AHqPTb HeCKOAbKO
nyTeft κ CHHTeTHqecKofi κοΗρεπρηκ. 3τ;ι τεκρεπρΗΠ ne
orpaHHqHBaeTCH τολβκο caMoft HCTopneft HcicyccTBa. Specb
moâho roBopHTb 06 oôipeft TeHpeHpHH, KOTopasi saTparn-
BaeT BCe OÔPaCTH HCKyCCTBO3HaHHP H KOTOpaH npHXOAHT
K BKCPAHPHTHOfl TeMaTH33PHH. FlepBIíqHblM CTaHOBHTCH
CTpeMAeHHe K CHCTeMHOMy nOHHMaHHIO.
B βο.πεε κοκκρετΗΟΗ οφερε pcKyccTBO3HaHHn b τεορκη
H ΜεΤΟρΟΛΟΓΗΗ HCTOpiIH HCKyCCTBa, MOJKHO Bbl'AeAHTb ABa
ocHOBHbix nyní κ cHHTeTHqecKOMy ποηημηηηιο: 1. CHHTe?
noHHMaeTca KaK (ponoAHHTeAbHoe) oôbepHHeiiHe othoch-
TeAbHO qaCTHPHblX HOPXOPOB, KaK CHHTe3 npHeMOB H MeTOAOB.
Oh ocHOBbiBaeTca Ha upepnocbiAKe cyipecTBOBanpa oßipero
npepMera. nocpepHpft noHHMaeTCJi KaK opraHH3M, TaK pto
oh npiiMO TpeSyeT CHHTeTHqecKoro nopxopa. OpHOBpeMeHHO
OH POHHMaeTCH KaK ΜΗΟΓΟΟΤΟρΟΗΗβε, MHOTOCAOHHOe pepoe,
TaK qTO TpeôycT aah CBoero ποηημηηηρ coBOKynnocTH
Β3ΓΛΗΑΟΒ H yAaBAHBaHHSI npHHpHna B3aPMOCB5I3H. C 3T0H
TOPKH 3PCHHH CHHT83 MOJKHO OCyipeCTBAPTb pBOJIKO: a) pa3-
AHPHbie npHeMbi npHBOppTCH κ oôipeMy 3HaMeHaTeAio
h npeBpaipaioTca b Hero, 6) pa3AHqHbie nppeMbi HpyT
napaAAepbHO ppyr ppyry, hx CHHTe3 BO3HHKaeT nyTeM
COeAHHeHHP AOCTHrHVTblX HMH pe3yAbT3T0B. B OÔOHX CAy-
qaax CHHTe.3 b npopecce iiccpepoBaHHa noHHMaeTCii KaK ,,mi-
mesis“ („noppajKanne“) opraHpqHOCTH (cTpyK-rypHoft hah
CHCTeMHOft CyipiIOCTP) H MHOrOCTOpOHHOCTH caMoro npep-
Mera HCCAepoBaHHii.
2. /IpyrHM nyreM PBAîieTCM CHHTe3 BHyrpeHHHH. CaM npep-
MeT noHHMaeTca KaK yjKe 3apaHee „CHHTesHpoBaHHbift“, hah
jKe MOHHCTpqecKH. Oh noppepKUBaeT mhojkcctbo πρε^,ΜετοΒ,
KOTopbie, ορΗβκο, ece HMeior oôiphh snaMenaTeAb. Πμβηηο
3T0T OÓlPHft 3HaMeHaTeAb CPyjKHT OCHOBOft bosmojkhocth
CHHTe3HpOBaHHH, OH HBAileTCJI, TaK CK33aTb, eio caMoft.
ripopecc no3HaHHH nosTOMy ne popjKeH coôppaTb ποα-
xopbi h pesyAbTaTbi, bbab caMH pa3Hoo6pa3Hbie npepMeîbi
npepnonojKHTeAbHO CBP3aHbi oßipeft 6a3oft. IlosHaHHe no-
3T0MV OCyipeCTBAPeTCH ePHHblM ΜβΤΟΛΟΜ, KOTOpbift B ceôe
BHyrpcHHe h anpnopHO CHHTe3npyeT ynoMPHyryio oßipyio
6a3y. TaKoft bha rnoceoporHqeCKoro oöoöipeHHJi PBAaeTca,
COÖCTBeilHO, anaAH30M CHHTeTHPHOCTH, nOHCKOM H onHca-
HHeM BHyTpeHHeft CBH3H.
Ecah nepBbift pyTb κ CHHTesy cocpeAOToqHBaeTca Ha
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