Ars: časopis Ústavu Dejín Umenia Slovenskej Akadémie Vied — 1984

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K npoÔJieiviaTHKe pasBWTHíi paHHero rpacpnqecKoro TBOpnecTBa BwHU,eHTa fjicoKHHKa

Eaa TpoHHoea

PeäiOMe
Βηηη,θητ Γ.ΊΟ/ΚΗΗΚ (pop. 1919) npnHaA-;ie/KHT K κργπ-
HeÄIUHM HBPeHHHM COBpeMeHHOft CJIOBaiXKOM rpa(j)HKH.
Moryquft KaHecTBeHHbifl pa3Max ero rpacjjimecKoro TBop-
necTBa OTMö^aeTCH b ocoßeHHOCTH c Konpa nampecinbix
τοροΒ po nacToamero BpeMeHH. B n3o6pa3HTe.nbHoe HCKyc-
ctbo Γροτκηηκ npmueji b inanape copoKOBbix γοαοβ b Ka-
HecTBe ÆiiBonucua, nporaroHHCTa CBoero ποκολβηηη.
C caMoro HaqaJia y Hero nposBiwincb HCKjiiowre.nbHwe
cnocoÔHOCTH κ pHCVHKy, hvbctbo jihhhh, hto npHBepo ero,
HaKonen, κ chctcmii'ni'lecKOif paôoTe b· τβχΗΗίκε rpa(j)HKii,
b nepByio onepepb b rpasnpoBaHnn na pepese, CTasmeM
paBHOUeHHblM KOMITOIieHTOM ero XyAO>KeCTBeHHOrO TBOp-
HecTBa.
BTOpaSI nOJIOBHHa copoKOBbix ΓΟΑΟΒ ÎIBJIÏleTCJI BTOpblM
CHPbHblM nepHOAOM B pa3BHTHH CPOBaUKOft ΓρπφκΚΗ H
OAHOBpeMenHo nepBbiM ôo.ibuiHM nepnOAOM rpacjjHHecKoro
TBopneCTBa Γ.ίο>κημκ3. Πρκ oneitKe oómeň peaTepfaHocTH
BHiipeHTa Γ.ίΟ/Kíihkíi b oßpacm rpac[)HKn 9T0My panneMy
nepnopy ero TBopnecTBa «e ypepapocb pocTaTonnoro bhh-
MaHHH. OrpaBajiocb npepnoHTeHHe óopee noapneMy TBop-
necTBy, HaMHHaa KpynHbíMH πμκρβμη (c 1950 r.). Ham
anaAH3 CTpeMHTCH popásám, hto eipe b stom panneM
nepnope öbiah saKopHposaHbi MHorne xapaKTepncTHHecKHe
3HaKH nocpepyromero pa3BHTHH rpa(|)HHecKoro TBopnecTBa
FpOJKHHKa.
BoAee HHTeHCHBHaíi rpacj>nHecKap peHTepbHOCTb Γρο>κ-
HHKa HaHHHaeTCH b 1946 r., KypbMHHnpyeT rpaBHpoBaiieM
na pepeee b 1947 r. h saBepmaeTCsi rpaenpoBaHHeM na
AHHopeyMe b 1948—1949 rr. C xypoHiecTBeHHoft tohkh
3peHH5I STO TBOpHeCTBO, HeCMOTpSI Ha TO HTO OHO 33ΗΗΜ3βΤ
Heöopbuioft npoMenryiOK BpeMeHH, ΗΒΡΗετεπ ροβορβηο
ΡΗφφβρεΗΗ,ΗρΟΒΗΗΗΗΜ. XapaKTepHblM CTO ΠρΗ3Η3ΚΟΜ CPy-
>KHT SKCnpeCCHBHbIH AHH3MH3M BbipajKeHHil. SKCnpeCCHB-
HOCTb ΓλΟ}ΚΗΗΚ3 BOCXOAHT K AByM pa3PHHHbIM HCTOHHHKaM,
B COOTB6TCTBHH C HOM BHOCPepCTBHH B eTO Γρ3φΗΗ60ΚΟΜ
TBOpnecTBe oßpasoBaPHCb pea npeoöpapaioiHHX npana.
B OpHOH HaCTH Πρ0Η3Β6Ρ6ΗΗΗ HpOHBPHeTCH OTHeTPHBaH
CBH3b C HeMeUKHM SKCnpeCCHOHII3MOM, npepCTaBPeHHbIM
rpaBHbiM oöpasoM ΓρΗφΗκοίί Hoppe. Bropaa rpynna npo-
H3BeAeHHH CBH3äHa C pOBOeHHblM nepHOpOM TBOpneCTBa
ÜHKacco.
Aph nepBoro cpoh npOH3BeAeHHH, onHpaiom.erocii Ha
HeMepKHH 3KcnpeccHOHH3M, xapaKTepHbi npOCTbie komhosh-
PHOHHbie peuieHHH, npeHMymecTBeHHo ophö- h AByxφHΓy-
paPbHbie, OCHOBHbIM SPeMeHTOM BbipajKeHHH KOTOpblX
cpyjKHT KOHTpacT nepnoii h öepoft noBepxnocTH. HpeoSpa-
paeT cTpeMPeHHe κ oöoßmaioine noHHMaeMOMy cocTaßy
φορΜΒΙ, CTepJKHeBblM Bbipa3HTePbHbIM SPeMeHTOM ΚΟΤΟρΟΓΟ
HBAHeTCH HHTeHCHBHbIH 3MOH,HOHaPbHO-nCHXOPOrHneCKHH 3a-
ρ»Α. B stoh rpynne npon3BepeHHH npoHBPHioTCH Βερτιι-
KapbHbie CBH3H c npepmecTByiomHM pa3BHTHeM cpoBapKoft

τρβφΗΚΗ (Oyppa, Papanpa) h ropH3OHTapbHbie κοκτβκτω
C TBOpneCTBOM XypO?KHHKOB CBoero ΠΟΚΟΡβΗΗΗ (3MeTaK,
Ayöaft). HacTb npoH3BepeHHH opnoßpeMeHHO τητοτεετ
K rOreHOBCKOMV THny HeOnpHMHTHBH3Ma, HTO CHMnTOMa-
ΤΗΗΉΟ ΑΡΗ ΜΗΟΓΗΧ npePCTaBHTePeH 3Τ0Γ0 HOKOPeHHH
(nanp., XlyöaH).
Βορεε Bbipa3HTepeH h SKcnancHBeH cpoh τρβφΗ-
qecKoro τΒορρεετΒΗ, HHcnnpapHeH pph κοτοροτο
nOCPyjKHP POBOeHHblH nep»op TBOpTCCTBa ÜHKaCCO, pa3-
BHBaBHIHHCH HapaPPePbHO C HiHBOnHCHOH Πρθ6ρεΜ3ΤΗΚΟΗ
Γρο>κηηκ3. OpHaKO pemeHHH β Γρβφηκε ßopee αηηβμηηηβι
h xypoTKecTBeHHaa ncnoBepb öopee HacymaHa. Ohh O3Ha-
naiOT OTKpbiTHe ηοβηχ B03M0>KH0CTeft xypojKecTBeHHoro
BbipajKeHHÍI B paSBHTHH CPOBapKOH τρ3φΗΚΗ. B 9ΤΟΜ CPOe
npOH3BepeHHH Mbl BHpHM 33pOÎKpeHH8 ppaMaTHHeCKOTO,
B3pbIBHOTO TaPaHTa PpOÂHHKa, KOTOpblH nOPHOCTblO pac-
Kpbipca b mecTHpecsiTbix h ceMHpecsiTbix ropax.
Φηρηβη,ηη c riHKacco b TBopnecTBe Γ.πθ/KHHKa HMeioT
pBa npana. C 1946 r. cnanapa β χκηβοπηοη, a Bcpep 3aTeM
h b Γρ3φηκε noHBpneTCH xapaKTepHap npocKOCTHan ετρεχ-
yiropbHaH CTHPH3an,HH, BbipaxcenHasi poMaHofi PHHHeň.
B τρΗφΗΗεεκΗΧ paßoTax stopo mna aKcnpBCCHBHOCTb npn-
rpymeHa δορεε peKoparaBiiHM tohom h pa>Ke β Ηβκοτορωχ
npoH3BepeHHHX upeoßpapaeT. Hncpenno npeBbímaiOT chm-
ÖOPHHeCKHe pePHrHO3Hble. MOTHBH H MOTHES H3 Η,ΗρΚΟΒΟΗ
cpepbi. reoMeTpHSHpyiomuH hpockhh cthab b TBopnecTBe
Γροτκηηιο cHOBa HoaBPHeTCH Ha py6e>xe nHTHpecHTbix h
uiecTHpecHTbix ropoB.
Bo ΒτοροΜ npane nocTenenno CTaHOBHTCsi 6opee HHTen-
CHBHblM SKnpeCCHBHbIH ΚΟΜΠΟΗ6ΗΤ XypOJKeCTBeHHOTO Bbl-
paxeHHH Γρθ/KHHKa. B cTHPHsanHii peTapeň OTpepbHbix
nacTeft φΗ^ρκ προΗΒΡίίετεπ ηκοηογρβΦηη ÜHKacco η
opHOBpeMieHHO ycHPHBaeTCíi cyrrecTHBHocTb BoapeHCTBHP
iieporo. 3pecb b npHHmnie HanHHaeT φopMypHpoBaτbCí^
CHMBOPHHeCKaH φyHK^HH H BajKHOCTb, K3KyiO Β ΠΟ3ρΗεΗΗΙβΜ
TBopnecTBe Γρομηηιο npHoßpePH ρεφορΜθρΗΗ h rnnep-
ΤροφΗΗ KOHeHHOCTeft Η rOPOBbl Κ3Κ nOCpePHHKOB nPOCKOCTH
CpepCTB BbipaJKeHHH npOH3BepeHHÍI.
143 anaPH3a paHHero τρηφΗΡεεκοΓΟ TBopqecTBa BHHpeHTa
rpojKHHKa BbïTeKaeT ero yspoBan popb β pasBHTHH cpo-
BailKOH ΓρΗφΗΚΗ. Ha ee BepTHKaPbHOH OCH pa3BHTHH r.TOŽK-
HHK ne HaMenaeT punib opny, nacTo nopqepKHBaeMyio
PHHHio Hauieft TpapHiiHH Cokop — MaňepHHK. B ynoMH-
HyTOM TBopnecTBe Γρομηηκβ nepeceKaioTCH h CHHTesn-
pyiOTCH TpapHUHH COBpeMeHHOft CPOBaiIKOň τρΗφκκΗ, BKPK>-
nan ®yppy, fapanpy h BasoBCKoro, c TpapHUHHMH
coBpeMeHHoro eeponeftcKoro ncKyccTBa, ητο6βι ποτομ CHOBa
3acHíiTb, ycHPeHHbie BepunneM ero TapaHTa, He τορβκο
β ero coöcTBeHHOM TBopnecTBe, ho h bo bcbm nocpepyiomeM
pa3BHTHH CPOBaUKOH ΓρΗφΗΚΗ.
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