Naville, Edouard ; Griffith, Francis Ll. [Hrsg.]
The Mound of the Jew and the City of Onias: Belbeis, Samanood, Abusir, Tukh el Karmus, 1887 — London, 1890

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any striking difference in date. All seemed to
have been built of crude brick, but at the same
time to contain burnt bricks.

The Bedawin of the desert are much dreaded,
and the ground west of the Tira'et el Khatatbeh
is quite deserted except during the day-time; while
part of the land is cultivated, the marshy ground
affords good pasture 'for the sheep and oxen, which
are ferried over the canal morning and evening.
The shekh of Tarraneh, who was responsible for
my safety, professed almost daily to be in mortal
fear while my tent remained on the west side, and
eventually he persuaded me to take it across, not-
withstanding that the distance from the work was
greatly increased by the move. His argument-
was that the Badawin had a score to wipe off
against the fellahin. In the previous year, a
convoy of about forty camels returning from the
Wadi Natrun, had bivouacked on the edge of the
desert, when, at dead of night, a gun was fired
in their very midst. By the side of the camels
slept the drivers, well enough armed. These
unlucky fellows sprang up in alarm, discharged
their guns wildly, and took to their heels. In the
morning the camels, of course, had gone, and their
late owners were dismayed to find a Badawi dead
on the ground: so now they are expecting
vengeance. I inquired how many Arabs were
engaged in this affair. The shekh replied,
"Perhaps a hundred, perhaps twenty, perhaps
three or four, who can tell ? They are like
snakes!" He was quite aware that a little
audacious trickery could win a big prize from the
timid fellahin.


One day in December, 1887, I paid a visit to
Heliopolis, and, having proceeded to the eastern
gateway, walked out thence into the desert. Not
far from the gateway lay a block of limestone, and
beyond were numerous heaps of limestone chips
ranged round hollows from which they had been
dug out. This reminded me so strongly of the
appearance of the great Saite tombs of Nebesheh,
though on a prodigiously large scale, that I felt
bound to test some of the places. Accordingly,
having a spare week in the month of February, I
returned to Matariyeh with a reyis, and sunk pits
by the side of some massive mud-brick walls,
which I hoped would prove to be the sides of
great tomb-chambers like No. 77 at Tell Nebesheh ;
however, the bricks ceased at a depth of two or
three feet in several separate trials.

Another point that it was necessary to ascertain
was the nature of some remains at El 'Arab, north
of the enclosure of Tell Hisn, or Heliopolis,
About the year 1880, Dr. Grant had seen two
monuments relating to Mnevis in this hamlet, and
although they had since been removed or de-
stroyed, there were chips, part of a limestone
column, and, at a few yards' distance, some granite
blocks visible in 1887. I therefore cut a few
trenches and uncovered some more granite, one
block having part of a figure of Turn sculptured
upon it. This was satisfactory evidence that
further remains might be discovered at a more
favourable season of the year; for, in February,
the water partially covered the blocks, and, more-
over, my time was already spent.

While these trials were going on, I searched the
neighbourhood for the scattered remnants of
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