The short face of the angle on the south, showing the
depth of the colonnade. We see there that Ranieses II.
" repaired the buildings of his father Anion," meaning
that he restored the image and name of the god, which
had been destroyed by Amenophis IV. Several inscrip-
tions of the same kind show that the restorations have
taken place along the whole terrace, on both sides of
It is not Amon who is seen here. It is Dedun the
god of Nubia, therefore he has not been erased. He
brings with him a certain number of captives, repre-
sented in the usual conventional way, which is supposed
to indicate that the king conquered all their countries
or cities. All of them have African names, but
the heads have not the Negro type. They are found
again among the lists of southern nations conquered
by the queen's successor, Thothm.es III.1 The god says
to the queen :—
" I bring; thee all lands and all countries of the South.
I bind for thee all the rebels of the Auu of Nubia,
at thy chosen hour. I grant thee to cut off their
PLATES CLIII. AND CLIV.
This is one of the most interesting representations
found at Deir el Bahari. No other one like it has yet
been discovered. It shows the transportation of the
two obelisks erected by the queen in the constructions
she made in the great temple of Anion at Karnak.
One of them is still standing, the other one is broken
in pieces; a few fragments remain on the spot, but
many have been carried away for making mill stones.
The queen considered the erection of these obelisks
as one of the chief events of her reign. Not only do we
see here their transportation and dedication to Amon,
but this last scene was repeated on a small construction
at Karnak, the stones of which have been re-used after-
wards. Most of them have disappeared, but the dedica-
tion of the obelisks has been preserved.
It is clear that this representation is not made to
scale; there are also various features which are
conventional. However we may suppose that the
Egyptians really intended to show in what manner
they did the work. We shall therefore describe how
we believe that the Egyptian sculpture has to be
The two obelisks are on a barge (pi. CLIV.) ; they
do not lie side by side, they are on a line, base against
base, so that the greatest weight would be in the
middle of the boat, while the two points are on stem
and stern. The barge is high above the water. It is
strengthened by three rows of strong beams, and we
can see in the forepart six strong straining ropes, on
the principle of a queen-post truss, what is called in
America a ' hog-frame.' This contrivance is usual in
Egyptian cargo-boats. We get an idea of what its size
must have been from an inscription of a scribe called
Anna, a contemporary of Hatshepsu. He relates that,
having to bring two obelisks for the King Thothmes I.,
he built a boat of 120 cubits in length and 40 in width,
to ship them both; thus the width of the boat was
one third its length. If we suppose that the architect
speaks of the royal cubit of 0-525 metre or 20'72 inches,
the length of the boat of Anna would be 63 metres
(210 feet), and its width 21(69 feet). This would tally
nearly exactly with the dimensions of the Karnak
obelisks, which are 30'7 metres long ; if we suppose that
the measurement of the boat applies only to the part
which is in the water; excluding the raised stem and
stern, it would leave a space of about eight feet be-
tween the two bases.
This was certainly a huge and unwieldy craft, the
steering of which must have been difficult when the
current was strong, and in case of a high wind. It
seems to be the reason why we see at the stern two
pairs of rudders, instead of one which large Egyptian
boats usually carry.
The obelisks are fastened tight to the sledges on
which they have been dragged into the boat. These
sledges were probably used as beams, which were
necessary for the raising of the obelisks.
The whole scene represents the end of the voyage,
when the obelisks, towed by a great number of boats
and escorted by military and royal barges, arrive at
1 Maeiette, Karnak, pll. 22 and 23.