Petrie, William M. Flinders
Abydos: Part I: 1902 — London, 1902

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known of this age. On 148 it seems as if the
double hill du was used as a variant for the
triangle gift da, and it should read Hotep-du-
Neit, " ISTeit give peace." The painted inscrip-
tion in red, 156, is uncommon. On 159 seems
to be a hyaena. 168 is a fragment of a large
royal stele, found in what is probably the
tomb of Narmer ; it is carved with relief in
three different levels, indicated by different
shading ; the object appears to be part of a
decorated facade (like that in Deshasheh, xxvi),
and if so, the royal name was probably in the
doorway below it, as on the inscription of king
Ka. Unhappily no more was found ; but, of
course, there may be other fragments in Paris
quite unknown. The gold bar of Aha, 171, is
here outlined in side view, and the markings on
the ends also shown ; the photograph of the
ends has been already published in B. T. ii,
pi. iiiA 7, and described on p. 21.

11. On plates xiv., xv., the worked flints
found in the royal tombs are arranged in their
historical order. In the upper half of the'series
the flakes and scrapers are placed, and below
these are the knives and fragments. The names
of the kings are placed at the top of each
column, and the letters of the tombs and some
details are written on the photographs. In no
other country or age has such an admirable
series been found for the study of variations in
the types and the rate of variation. And this
only adds one more to the bitter regrets that
this collection consists of only the scraps left
behind after the shameless plundering of these
tombs by speculators, with the full assent of
the Egyptian authorities.

At the top the small pointed flakes begin

with Mena, and disappear under Merneit; the
flakes under Den are rougher, and such con-
tinue to Perabsen. On the other hand, the
square-ended flakes begin under Den, but
develop strongly and distinctively during the
Ilnd Dynasty. The round-ended flakes are
finely worked with wide flat sides ; beginning
under Zer, they are poorer under Den, and
merge into the square-ended flakes by the end
of the 1st Dynasty.

The flat scrapers are not of well-marked
types at first; a tailed scraper is seen under
Merneit, and a rounded triangular one under
Azab. The triangle is sharper under Mersekha,
and by the time of Khasekhemui the tri-
angular scraper, long or equilateral, is the
commonest form of flint.

The knives begin with the deep back curve,
as in that found in the Mena-tomb at Naqada
(Dk Morgan, Bech. ii, fig. 769). The handle
by the first large knife does not belong to that
specimen, but is only placed to carry on the
figure. The curve becomes less gradually,
until it is almost straight backed under
Khasekhemui. The surface working, Avhich
is far below that of the prehistoric flints even
at first, becomes rougher on the later knives,
and the body is left much thicker and coarser.
One instance of a recurved tip occurs under Zet.
The small knives, with two nicks for tying
them on to the girdle, are only found under
Zer, see foot of plate. The sharp toe to the
handle is most marked in the first half of the
dynasty, and fades away after that until it is
almost lost under Khasekhemui. The most
typical series of these varieties for comparison
is in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

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