Petrie, William M. Flinders
Abydos: Part I: 1902 — London, 1902

Page: 27
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CHAPTEE III.

THE OSIRIS TEMPLE.

23. As we have already stated, the Osiris
temple occupied but a small part of the great
temenos which was later built around the site.
The temple of the XVIIIth Dynasty, which is
the lowest level yet cleared on this site, had
close around it a massive brick wall, some
thirty feet thick; in the west side of which was
a great pylon of red granite, opening into the
rest of the larger temenos. As the plans are
necessarily still so incomplete, they are not
published this year ; but a general surface vieAv
of the site is given in Mr. Garstang's El Arabdh,

The temple buildings principally consist of
two parts: the first, or easternmost, is a square
building, of which nothing but foundations and
loose blocks remain; the second part has still
the lower few feet of the walls of two pillared
halls and some chambers.

In the square building were blocks of the
XVIIIth—-XXXth Dynasties, and foundation
deposits of the XVIIIth—XXVIth Dynasties.
The halls behind were built by Amenhotep I,
and perhaps added to until the XXVIth
Dynasty. Outside of the whole temple block,
in the south of the great temenos are other
buildings of the XlXth and the XXXth
Dynasty. Until the excavations are com-
pleted it is premature to discuss the exact
history of the site. At least it may be said
that as the town of the earliest dynasties lies
just behind this temple site, it is probable that
the earliest temple stood there also ; for a later
temple would not be built on town ruins, nor
would it be likely to abandon the primitive
sacred ground.

The inscriptions, as such, are dealt with by
Mr. Weigall in chap, v; so here we are con-
cerned more with the position and historical
meaning of the various sculptures.

24. The remains before the Xllth Dynasty
are not numerous (see pis. liv—lvii), as the
work has not yet reached the true level of that
age in the temple ground, and all the stones
that have been obtained are re-used. The
blocks of Merenra, Mehtiemsaf (pi. liv), were
found in the foundation of the hall next to that
of Amenhotep I: they are of slight and rough
work, but show that some building was done
in the Vlth Dynasty, so more may be found in
future. No buildings of this king were yet
known, except his pyramid; so any further
results will be of value.

The three pieces of large private steles, pi. liv,
were found near together in the square temple
site. From the work it seems likely that they
belong to the Vlth Dynasty. The left hand
upper piece is from the left of a stele ; the
lower is the bottom of the right side of a stele;
the right hand piece is from the upper right
hand of a stele. These belong to two if not
three steles ; and unfortunately only one name
is left, that of a mother, a royal favourite Adu.

The clay sealing of Shepses-kaf (pi. lv, 1), is
the only such known in the IVth Dynasty;
and other remains of him are extremely rare.
The royal name is seen in the third column,
and the first column gives his lea name, which
was hitherto unknoAvn. It reads Shepses, " the
noble " ; and it gives a further proof that the
hawk name was that of the king's In, for as
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