Aldrich, Henry; Smyth, Philip [Übers.]
The Elements Of Civil Architecture: According To Vitruvius And Other Ancients, And The Most Approved Practice Of Modern Authors, Especially Palladio — London, 1789 [Cicognara Nr. 395]

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CIVIL 'ARCHITECTURE.

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E is a smaller astragal, bound with a spiral line, and'may
be called a scytale ; f F exhibits the spiral line, the astragal
being taken away, and may be called a tendril; t G and H
are beaded astragals; for distindfion’s fake let G be called a
necklace, and H a rosary. The four figures represented by O
are properly termed labyrinth?, which the antients have de-
scribed under various forms : but this rule held universally
that none were executed but with right angles.

§. 4. The greater members (of the Orders) are furnished
with these minuter parts with all their variations and addi-
tions, whether they are plain or carved, or both. For in-
siance, the base which is called attic (see a specimen os it in
plate 6) has a plinth, a trochil, two listels and a larger and
lesser tore, and its height is always one module. It derives its
name from the attic column, ( of which hereaster ) to which
it particularly belongs, though it be adopted very generally
by other columns.

The following is the order of the members and parts as they
rise. First, the base of the pedestal, the trunk, or die, and
the cornice ; next, the base os the column, the shast and the
capital; so far is termed the columnation, the follows the ar-
chitrave, freeze and cornice, of which consists the trabeation
or entablature.

Intercolumniations are ccnstrucled In five ways : the first
mode is arseostyle, where the space between the pillars is 8 : 00.
2. diastyle 5: 15. 3. eustyle 4: 15. 4. systyle 4:00. 5.
pycnostyle 3 : 00.* But these proportions mull be understood

4 Scytale is in one sense a kind of serpent, which the twisting of the spiral
line may seem to represent; and in another, the staff, which a Lacedaemonian
general sent to his brother ossicer, who had one of a similar kind, round which
he wound the letter he received. The form of the astragal may be thought like
this. The Reader by turning to the figure E may form his opinion.

X Claviculus in the original may be rendered thus perhaps, as clavicula sig-
nifies a young twig or shoot of a vine, and the figure F seems to countenance the
construdtion.

* Araeostyle, diastyle, systyle, pycnostyle. See these proportions of distance
in the pillars descrlbed in Ware’s Body of Architecture, London edit. 1756, by
T. Olborn and J. Shipton, in Grays Inn. to
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