Egypt Exploration Fund [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1908-1909

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Excavations at Abydos.


In only one case was it certain that the body had been mummified; in
fact, in numerous graves the body had shifted to one end of the coffin
owing to a tilting of the coffin whilst it was being lowered into the grave.

The usual funerary furniture was, in the case of the women, a wooden
head-rest, a copper mirror, and several alabaster and pottery vases. The
wooden pillow was placed under the head, and had generally broken down
under the attacks of white ants. These pillows were simple in form, some
in fact consisting only of a flat block of wood slightly hollowed at one end
to fit the neck; one of the same shape was made of limestone, others were
cut with two slender wooden legs, but no really fine examples were found.
The alabaster vases were generally placed near the head; in one case,
however, four small vases were placed outside the coffin against the wall
of the chamber, and in another two vases were found (one in a small box)
on the lid of the coffin, whilst a larger vase stood by the wall of the

Grave F 65 is a very good type of these burials. The skeleton (a
woman) lay on the left side, with head to the north-west, arms at the sides,
and knees slightly drawn up. Under the left temple were the remains of
a wooden pillow. Before the face stood a large alabaster vase, behind the
head was a flat red pottery vase with handles, and at the back of the neck
a small red polished pottery vase.

Before the breast lay a large copper mirror with a lotiform wooden
handle, behind the knees was a large polished red pottery vase, and at the
feet was a small wooden box containing a small polished red pottery vase
and a copper needle. Eound the neck were two. strings of green glazed
steatite beads, one with a large carnelian bead in the centre, and the other
supporting a steatite button seal with the figure of a hornet cut on the face.

On the lid of the coffin, over the knees, was placed a small red pottery
vase, and against the outside of the coffin at the feet leant a large globular
vase of rough pottery, over the mouth of which was placed an inverted
polished red pottery bowl with a spout (in grave F 60 was found a similar
large vase with a polished red pottery dish, unspouted, placed inverted
over the mouth).

The burial of the men was a simple affair: a wooden pillow and a long
staff (sometimes copper-headed), and a few pottery vases, supplied their
wants, though one had with him a complete set of small copper chisels,
scrapers, and dishes.

In two burials the leg bones (from the knee down) of an ox had been
laid on the coffin lids over the feet; and in one case a complete leg of an
ox in copper was found by the coffin, but the date of this is not certain.

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