Egypt Exploration Fund [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1908-1909

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Gkaego-Eojiax Egypt.


and they were evidently used as school text-books. They belong to the
third century, and are the largest and best preserved specimens of their
type now extant.

The Arclviv fur Papyrusforscliung, of which a double part has appeared
during the past year, contains several articles of interest in addition
to those which have already been mentioned. The chief of these are
a German translation of the article on the XaoKplrao, by the late
S. Waszynski, which was mentioned in this Beport last year (no. 32)
from a short abstract of it in its original Folish form ; an examination by
Mr. H. I. Bell of Karabacek's theory of the occurrence of Latin in the
protocols inscribed at the beginnings of papyri in the Arab period,
adducing strong reasons for an adverse verdict on it; a note by Wilcken,
based upon the material collected elsewhere by Breccia20 on the names of
the tribes and denies of Alexandria, calling attention to the fact that the
names of the tribes (and presumably the organisation or rather re-
organisation itself) make their first appearance at the beginning of the
reign of Nero, and were probably due to him; a fresh edition, by Bell, of
an administrative order of the Arab governor Kurrah, at Berlin, first
published by Becker; a valuable note by H. Ibscher, based on his long
experience in the Berlin Museum, on the material construction and
arrangement of papyrus rolls; and, last but by no means least, a number of
Wilcken's invaluable reviews of recent publications, notably Eubensohn's
Elephantine Papyri, the Lille Papyri, part ii of the Tebtunis Eapyri,
part i of the Strassburg Papyri, and part vi of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri.

In another publication Wilcken returns to the subject of the phenomena
of Antisemitism in Alexandria,21 to which he has already made more than
one contribution. The present article, besides some general considerations,
contains a new text from a Bremen papyrus (a letter written daring the
great struggle with the Jews in Egypt at the beginning of the reign of
Hadrian), and gives a new recension of the three now well-known records
of processes before the imperial judgment seat, which have been aptly
compared by Bauer and others to the Acts of martyrs whicli are so
characteristic a feature of early Christian literature. The literary
character of these " heathen acts of martyrs " is more and more generally
recognised, and is not disputed by Wilcken; but he maintains that they
rest upon an historical basis, and in all probability go back ultimately to
the official records of the several trials, though they have been more or
less worked up subsequently from the literary or pamphleteering point
of view.

Of treatises on technical points connected with Egyptian life and

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