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Artium Quaestiones — 22.2011

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external forms manifested in liturgy is preserved. (In this respect liturgy
differs from ceremoniał, which is open to fashion).^
Written papai ceremoniał originated from the so-called ordinances,
i.e. regulations concerning court life, whose original function was pri-
marily pragmatic and economic. They pertained to the accidentals of life
within the residence. Later on they assumed the character of strictly
formalised norms, which included „clauses" concerning all manifesta-
tions of public life. In the first papai ordines, which subsequently re-
ceived the name of Ordo Romun^s, it was the complement of ceremoniał
liturgy. i5 In time, as the pope gained a position of importance as a secu-
lar ruler, they came to comprised the secular sphere as well.

Berns/Rahn, op. cit. (cf. the notę 2), p. 653 „Ro/iscAes Fest and AircA/icAes Fes/
scAZie/?en einander nicA/ no/ieendig aas. Vie/e Ao/iscAe Fes/e - e/ma /LocAzei/en oder
Fan/en - merden dem Fes//agsry/mas des FircAen/aAres angepa/1/. G/eicAmoA/ oerscAme/-
zen się nie uoZ/ends." See also ibidem, p. 659, n. 6: „Liturgie Aenn/ Aeine Moden, sondern
a//en/a//s Fe/ormen, mit dereń Rii/e ein grazises and angemesseneres zeicAenAa//es
Vers/andnis der TdeiZsgescAicA/e gemonnen merden soii. f. J FezeicAnend ist, da/1 die grb/l/e
/orma/e F/aAdi/a/ im me///icAen Zeremonie// dort anza/re/^en ist, mo das Freignis saAra/
Aegrande/ mird.* im AerrscAa/Zseinse/zenden Fronang".
Papai ordi/ies were the codification of rules pertaining to the functioning of the
papai court and of regułations concerning liturgy. Initially, they complemented the mis-
sal, pontificai, and rite. They originated in the early 8^ century at the latest and drew on
ancient and Byzantine ceremoniał, comprising the spheres of liturgy, the course of the
mass, the attire used, and the arrangement of processions. Their distinctive feature was a
specified principle of the functioning of the pope's ceremoniał cortege. This principle de-
termined hierarchical structure within the procession (with a distinct speciiication of
those in front of and behind the pope) as well as during councils and audiences. The ini-
tial regulations of ordines only concern order in church and during procession, though
they give an idea of the original structure of the papai court. The breakthrough in the
evolution of ordines was the edition of Ordinariam at the time of Innocent III (Ordo F7A,
by Cencio Savelli). Subsequent ordines (XIII-XV) delined the position of the pope by stat-
ing the rules of regulation. (See Ordines romani da Aan/ moye?i age, ed. Michel Andrieu,
vol. 1-5, reprint, Louvain 1961-1985, 1-5 on ordines I-IX and XII, compiled by 1200, and
Bernhard. Schimmelpfennig, Die Zeremo7rien.AdcAer der FdmiscAe?! Farie im Mi//eZnZ/er,
Tiibingen 1973 on ceremonials from the 12^ to 15^ centuries. Apart from the so-called
canon, both studies discuss other versions of ordinances as well), B. Schimmelpfennig, Die
Fedea/ang Foms im pąps/iicAen Zeremonie//, (in:) Fom in AoAen Mi//e/a//er. F/adien
zn den Fomoors/e/Zangen and zar Fomgo/i/iA uom 70. Ais zam 72. JaArAander/, FicAard
F/ze zar uo//enda7!.g seines 70-s/en LeAens/aAren gemidme/, ed. B. Schimmelpfennig/
L. Schmugge, Sigmaringen 1992, p. 47-61, esp. p. 47-51, 59-60. From the co-called Ordo of
Gregory X (Ordo F777, called Caeremonia/e romanam), Marc Dykmans speaks of cere-
moniał books (see Dykmans, op. cit., cf. the notę 11, 4 vols). The first collection of records
called a ceremoniał, Liber caeremoniaram sanc/ae romanae Fec/esiae, were books of
ceremoniał written by order of pope Innocent VIII. The authors of this collection were
the papai ceremoniarii Agostino Patrizi (Picolomini) and Johannes Burckard (see Patri-
zi/Dykmans, cf. the notę 12, vol. 1). This ceremoniał, despite the objection of the papai
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