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Artium Quaestiones — 22.2011

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and - approximately sińce the 8^ century - also for the papai treasury,
primicerio ees^67'arh (sic!). The chapel was under the care of the sacce-
/arias. Since Carolingian times, the sncce/arias was an alternative name
for the treasurer (ces^ararias, arcarias), and then for the papai almoner
(eAmosiaarias) as well. In the pope's close environment were also the
osharh (janitors, sentries) and the prior s^ada/i (tirst equerry, marshal).
Order during audiences was maintained by the nomenc/aZor, later
called the cercmoaiarias. This piece of information, which comes from
the Ordo Primus, means that in the early 8^ century there already ex-
isted a complex audience hierarchy that required separate management,
and that the necessary audience rooms had to be established. Papai
residences built at that time confirm this conclusion.
In the Carolingian period new offices appeared. They resulted from
the development of the papai suitę. The new distinctions imply that the
zonę of the private seat began to gain in importance: owing to the cere-
moniał character of banquets, the distinction of the cellarmans (cePernri)
appeared at the court. The development of the papai set of rooms and
their inclusion into ceremoniał structure induced -- following the Roman
model - the emergence of a group of valets (cadica/arh). The necessity of
outdoor representation, during which the pope appeared on horseback,
led to extending of the ofhce of groom to include functionaries responsi-
ble solely for papai horses, i.e. equerries (siaZores).
Another expansion of the suitę took place in the 12th and 13^ centu-
ries. It was in that period that the term papai court (caria, cor^e, carZc)
came into use. The terms curia, meaning officials and their subordinate
institutions, and cohort (coAors), formerly used to refer to the suitę,
merged then. Consequently, the notion of court appeared and the word
curia came to mean the yard connected with court ceremoniał.*^ An ex-
tended administrative structure called the Curia Romana was estab-
lished at that time, and family structures were altered by the introduc-
tion of what was to develop into the private suitę, termed in modern
times the camera secrc^a poah/ica, i.e. private chamber.
At this time the ofhce of uicehomiaas disappears. Since the 13^ cen-
tury the person performing similar duties was called a camerlengo
(cammcrarias). Since Avignonian times the role of the camerlengo
changed; among other things, he supervised the expanding papai ad-

69 On this issue see P.G. Schmid, (Aria amZ cariaZiias. WorZ aacZ BecZeaZanp im Spie-
pei der ZaZeiaiscAen QaeZZga, and U. Molk, Caria aacZ cariaZiZas. WorZ aacZ PgcZeaZaag im
SpieggZ cZer romaniscAen DicAZaap.' za /Arz. „corZisfie)" \prouans. „corZesfiaP im iż.
JaZir/mmZerZ, both texts in: CariaZiZas. <SZacZiga za GraanZ/r^ea cZer Aó/iscZi-riZZgrZicAea
TCaZZar, ed. J. Fleckenstein, Góttingen 1991 (Veróffentlichungen des Max-Płanck-Instituts
fur Geschichte 100), p. 27-38.
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